About the course
This degree is offered jointly by the Faculty of Theology and Religion and the Faculty of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies. The course is ideal for students wishing to learn more about the origins of Christianity by coming to grips with the complex evidence for the state of Judaism in the Graeco-Roman World in the first century.
An emphasis is placed on the detailed study of primary evidence for both Judaism and Christianity in the first and early second centuries CE. You will therefore require a good existing knowledge of both Hebrew and Greek.
The structure and content of the course ensures that you have the opportunity to pay equal attention to the history and primary texts of both religious traditions.
Core modules examine the literature, history, and institutions of each tradition and you may choose to specialise in one further theme within each tradition:
- Judaism from 200 BCE to 200 CE
- Christianity to 200 CE
You will choose to specialise in one further theme within each tradition. In the case of Judaism, these themes are:
- Jewish Historiography
- Jewish Bible Interpretation
- Jewish Eschatology
- Jewish Wisdom Literature
In the case of Christianity, these themes are:
- The Gospels and the Historical Jesus
- The Acts and the Pauline Corpus
- The Apostolic Fathers
- The Apologists
You may choose a dissertation research topic which explores a facet of one or other tradition or inter-relating aspects of the two traditions in the period.
The Oxford Faculties of Theology and Religion and of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, together with Oxford’s wider library resources and collections, provide an unmatched research environment for the study of Judaism and Christianity in the Graeco-Roman World. Many graduates of this course have found their in-depth engagement with the Jewish background to early Christianity an excellent preparation for doctoral study in New Testament, in the history of religions in the early Roman Empire and in Jewish studies.
The allocation of graduate supervision for this course is the responsibility of the Faculty of Theology and Religion, in conjunction with the Faculty of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, and it is not always possible to accommodate the preferences of incoming graduate students to work with a particular member of staff. Under exceptional circumstances a supervisor may be found outside the Faculty of Theology and Religion and Faculty of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies.
Assessment consists of:
- two exams in Trinity term of the first year on the literature, history, and institutions of Judaism or Christianity;
- two further exams in Trinity term of the first year consisting of essay questions and passages for translation and comment from set texts relating to your chosen themes in both Judaism and Christianity; and
- a dissertation due in Trinity term of the second year on a topic in Judaism and Christianity in the Graeco-Roman World.
Given the selective admission and consequent small numbers of students on this course, it is difficult to offer general statistics about graduate destinations as each case is distinctive.
The great majority of graduates of the MPhil in Judaism and Christianity in the Graeco-Roman World go on to pursue doctoral research at Oxford or another leading university, in either Jewish studies, New Testament or early Christianity. A few recent graduates have pursued careers in fields including academic administration and teaching.
Changes to this course and your supervision
The University will seek to deliver this course in accordance with the description set out in this course page. However, there may be situations in which it is desirable or necessary for the University to make changes in course provision, either before or after registration. The safety of students, staff and visitors is paramount and major changes to delivery or services may have to be made in circumstances of a pandemic, epidemic or local health emergency. In addition, in certain circumstances, for example due to visa difficulties or because the health needs of students cannot be met, it may be necessary to make adjustments to course requirements for international study.
Where possible your academic supervisor will not change for the duration of your course. However, it may be necessary to assign a new academic supervisor during the course of study or before registration for reasons which might include illness, sabbatical leave, parental leave or change in employment.
Entry requirements for entry in 2024-25
Proven and potential academic excellence
As a minimum, applicants should hold or be predicted to achieve the following UK qualifications or their equivalent:
- a first-class or strong upper second-class (67% or above) undergraduate degree with honours in theology, religious studies or another closely-related field.
Entrance is very competitive.
For applicants with a degree from the USA, the minimum GPA sought is 3.8 out of 4.0.
If your degree is not from the UK or another country specified above, visit our International Qualifications page for guidance on the qualifications and grades that would usually be considered to meet the University’s minimum entry requirements.
GRE General Test scores
Other examination results may be submitted alongside degree qualifications. If offered, the minimum Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores normally sought are 160 in verbal reasoning, 5.0 in analytical writing and 150 in quantitative reasoning.
Other qualifications, evidence of excellence and relevant experience
- An emphasis is placed on the detailed study of primary evidence for both Judaism and Christianity in the first and early second centuries CE. Students therefore require a good existing knowledge of both Hebrew and Greek.
- Progression to the DPhil in Theology relies on a strong performance in the taught course. The faculty would normally expect a final grade of 67% or above.
English language proficiency
This course requires proficiency in English at the University's higher level. If your first language is not English, you may need to provide evidence that you meet this requirement. The minimum scores required to meet the University's higher level are detailed in the table below.
|Test||Minimum overall score||Minimum score per component|
|IELTS Academic (Institution code: 0713)||7.5||7.0|
TOEFL iBT, including the 'Home Edition'
(Institution code: 0490)
*Previously known as the Cambridge Certificate of Advanced English or Cambridge English: Advanced (CAE)
†Previously known as the Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English or Cambridge English: Proficiency (CPE)
Your test must have been taken no more than two years before the start date of your course. Our Application Guide provides further information about the English language test requirement.
Declaring extenuating circumstances
If your ability to meet the entry requirements has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic (eg you were awarded an unclassified/ungraded degree) or any other exceptional personal circumstance (eg other illness or bereavement), please refer to the guidance on extenuating circumstances in the Application Guide for information about how to declare this so that your application can be considered appropriately.
You will need to register three referees who can give an informed view of your academic ability and suitability for the course. The How to apply section of this page provides details of the types of reference that are required in support of your application for this course and how these will be assessed.
You will be required to supply supporting documents with your application. The How to apply section of this page provides details of the supporting documents that are required as part of your application for this course and how these will be assessed.
Performance at interview
Interviews are not normally held as part of the admissions process.
How your application is assessed
Your application will be assessed purely on your proven and potential academic excellence and other entry requirements published under that heading.
References and supporting documents submitted as part of your application, and your performance at interview (if interviews are held) will be considered as part of the assessment process. Whether or not you have secured funding will not be taken into consideration when your application is assessed.
An overview of the shortlisting and selection process is provided below. Our 'After you apply' pages provide more information about how applications are assessed.
Shortlisting and selection
Students are considered for shortlisting and selected for admission without regard to age, disability, gender reassignment, marital or civil partnership status, pregnancy and maternity, race (including colour, nationality and ethnic or national origins), religion or belief (including lack of belief), sex, sexual orientation, as well as other relevant circumstances including parental or caring responsibilities or social background. However, please note the following:
- socio-economic information may be taken into account in the selection of applicants and award of scholarships for courses that are part of the University’s pilot selection procedure and for scholarships aimed at under-represented groups;
- country of ordinary residence may be taken into account in the awarding of certain scholarships; and
- protected characteristics may be taken into account during shortlisting for interview or the award of scholarships where the University has approved a positive action case under the Equality Act 2010.
Processing your data for shortlisting and selection
Admissions panels and assessors
All recommendations to admit a student involve the judgement of at least two members of the academic staff with relevant experience and expertise, and must also be approved by the Director of Graduate Studies or Admissions Committee (or equivalent within the department).
Admissions panels or committees will always include at least one member of academic staff who has undertaken appropriate training.
Other factors governing whether places can be offered
The following factors will also govern whether candidates can be offered places:
- the ability of the University to provide the appropriate supervision for your studies, as outlined under the 'Supervision' heading in the About section of this page;
- the ability of the University to provide appropriate support for your studies (eg through the provision of facilities, resources, teaching and/or research opportunities); and
- minimum and maximum limits to the numbers of students who may be admitted to the University's taught and research programmes.
Offer conditions for successful applications
If you receive an offer of a place at Oxford, your offer will outline any conditions that you need to satisfy and any actions you need to take, together with any associated deadlines. These may include academic conditions, such as achieving a specific final grade in your current degree course. These conditions will usually depend on your individual academic circumstances and may vary between applicants. Our 'After you apply' pages provide more information about offers and conditions.
In addition to any academic conditions which are set, you will also be required to meet the following requirements:
If you are offered a place, you will be required to complete a Financial Declaration in order to meet your financial condition of admission.
Disclosure of criminal convictions
In accordance with the University’s obligations towards students and staff, we will ask you to declare any relevant, unspent criminal convictions before you can take up a place at Oxford.
The Faculty of Theology and Religion is based in the Gibson Building, which is situated in the Radcliffe Observatory Quarter on the Woodstock Road. Facilities there include teaching, seminar and lecture rooms, a graduate common room and graduate workspace and faculty administration. The Philosophy and Theology Faculties Library (PTFL) is located nearby on the ground floor of the Radcliffe Humanities building.
Oxford has a wide and rich range of library resources for Theology and Religion graduates. You will not only have access to the resources of your college and faculty, but also the Bodleian Libraries. This has been a legal deposit for 400 years, which means it can claim a copy of any book or journal published in the UK or Ireland.
The Philosophy and Theology Faculties Library (PTFL) is located in the Radcliffe Observatory Quarter on the same site as the Gibson Building. The PTFL is a lending library primarily for staff and students of the two faculties, in support of research, teaching and learning. It has a collection of c. 30,000 books for loan on open access, with a further 20,000 available by request from remote store. It is also a delivery location for books from the Bodleian stacks for reference use in the library. Many books are now also available in electronic format; some are downloadable for 24-hour loan. Also, the Leopold Muller Memorial Library is a major teaching and research library in all areas and periods of Jewish Studies.
The Oxford University Language Centre (OULC) at 12 Woodstock Road offers excellent facilities and free courses to members of the University who wish to learn or improve a foreign language relevant to their academic work – or indeed for their general interest and education. Courses are offered in Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), French, Georgian, German, Modern Greek, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Welsh, and English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Most courses consist of two single fifty-minute classes each week or one double class.
Courses begin in October and continue throughout the academic year. If a course is required for study or research, there is a priority enrolment scheme.
Theology and Religion
The Faculty of Theology and Religion at Oxford is a global centre for research in a wide range of fields. There are over 200 graduate students currently studying within the faculty.
Few institutions can offer Oxford’s combination of historic resources, teaching expertise, and a lively research culture where new concepts, theories, and interpretations are discussed and debated everywhere from the seminar room to the college dining table.
Oxford provides its research students with exceptional study resources, including outstanding libraries and a host of research centres. As a leading centre for research, a wide variety of experienced specialists are available to supervise doctoral research in numerous fields of theology and religion at Oxford.
Graduate study in theology and religion at Oxford gives you the opportunity to participate in the faculty’s research culture, to benefit from its outstanding expertise and resources, and to develop your own ideas and thinking.
The faculty offers master’s degrees in all major areas of theology and the study of religions. Most subjects are available as either a nine-month Master of Studies (MSt) degree or as a 21-month Master of Philosophy (MPhil) degree, which has a substantial research component.
The doctoral degree, the DPhil, is offered in all areas of theology and study of religions.
A postgraduate diploma (PGDip) is recommended to those who wish to study theology and religion at graduate level but do not have a first degree in theology or religious studies.
The faculty offers a Master of Theology (MTh) and Postgraduate Diploma (PGDip) in Applied Theology to enable theological reflection upon experience in pastoral practice.
The University expects to be able to offer over 1,000 full or partial graduate scholarships across the collegiate University in 2024-25. You will be automatically considered for the majority of Oxford scholarships, if you fulfil the eligibility criteria and submit your graduate application by the relevant December or January deadline. Most scholarships are awarded on the basis of academic merit and/or potential.
For further details about searching for funding as a graduate student visit our dedicated Funding pages, which contain information about how to apply for Oxford scholarships requiring an additional application, details of external funding, loan schemes and other funding sources.
Please ensure that you visit individual college websites for details of any college-specific funding opportunities using the links provided on our college pages or below:
Please note that not all the colleges listed above may accept students on this course. For details of those which do, please refer to the College preference section of this page.
Further information about funding opportunities for this course can be found on the faculty's website.
Annual fees for entry in 2024-25
Annual Course fees
Further details about fee status eligibility can be found on the fee status webpage.
Information about course fees
Course fees are payable each year, for the duration of your fee liability (your fee liability is the length of time for which you are required to pay course fees). For courses lasting longer than one year, please be aware that fees will usually increase annually. For details, please see our guidance on changes to fees and charges.
Course fees cover your teaching as well as other academic services and facilities provided to support your studies. Unless specified in the additional information section below, course fees do not cover your accommodation, residential costs or other living costs. They also don’t cover any additional costs and charges that are outlined in the additional information below.
There are no compulsory elements of this course that entail additional costs beyond fees and living costs. However, as part of your course requirements, you may need to choose a dissertation, a project or a thesis topic. Please note that, depending on your choice of topic and the research required to complete it, you may incur additional expenses, such as travel expenses, research expenses, and field trips. You will need to meet these additional costs, although you may be able to apply for small grants from your department and/or college to help you cover some of these expenses.
In addition to your course fees, you will need to ensure that you have adequate funds to support your living costs for the duration of your course.
For the 2024-25 academic year, the range of likely living costs for full-time study is between c. £1,345 and £1,955 for each month spent in Oxford. Full information, including a breakdown of likely living costs in Oxford for items such as food, accommodation and study costs, is available on our living costs page. The current economic climate and high national rate of inflation make it very hard to estimate potential changes to the cost of living over the next few years. When planning your finances for any future years of study in Oxford beyond 2024-25, it is suggested that you allow for potential increases in living expenses of around 5% each year – although this rate may vary depending on the national economic situation. UK inflationary increases will be kept under review and this page updated.
Students enrolled on this course will belong to both a department/faculty and a college. Please note that ‘college’ and ‘colleges’ refers to all 43 of the University’s colleges, including those designated as societies and permanent private halls (PPHs).
If you apply for a place on this course you will have the option to express a preference for one of the colleges listed below, or you can ask us to find a college for you. Before deciding, we suggest that you read our brief introduction to the college system at Oxford and our advice about expressing a college preference. For some courses, the department may have provided some additional advice below to help you decide.
The following colleges accept students on the MPhil in Judaism and Christianity in the Graeco-Roman World:
Before you apply
Our guide to getting started provides general advice on how to prepare for and start your application. Check the deadlines on this page and the information about deadlines in our Application Guide. If it's important for you to have your application considered under a particular deadline – eg under a December or January deadline in order to be considered for Oxford scholarships – we recommend that you aim to complete and submit your application at least two weeks in advance.
Application fee waivers
An application fee of £75 is payable per course application. Application fee waivers are available for the following applicants who meet the eligibility criteria:
- applicants from low-income countries;
- refugees and displaced persons;
- UK applicants from low-income backgrounds; and
- applicants who applied for our Graduate Access Programmes in the past two years and met the eligibility criteria.
You are encouraged to check whether you're eligible for an application fee waiver before you apply.
Do I need to contact anyone before I apply?
You do not need to make contact with the department before you apply but you are encouraged to visit the relevant departmental webpages to read any further information about your chosen course.
Completing your application
You should refer to the information below when completing the application form, paying attention to the specific requirements for the supporting documents.
For this course, the application form will include questions that collect information that would usually be included in a CV/résumé. You should not upload a separate document. If a separate CV/résumé is uploaded, it will be removed from your application.
If any document does not meet the specification, including the stipulated word count, your application may be considered incomplete and not assessed by the academic department. Expand each section to show further details.
Three overall, academic preferred
Whilst you must register three referees, the department may start the assessment of your application if two of the three references are submitted by the course deadline and your application is otherwise complete. Please note that you may still be required to ensure your third referee supplies a reference for consideration.
References should generally be academic. Professional references are acceptable but limited in what they can demonstrate about academic ability; you should submit no more than one such reference.
Your references will support your academic ability, your relevant background knowledge and language skills, and overall suitability for your chosen programme of study.
Your transcripts should give detailed information of the individual grades received in your university-level qualifications to date. You should only upload official documents issued by your institution and any transcript not in English should be accompanied by a certified translation.
More information about the transcript requirement is available in the Application Guide.
Statement of purpose
You should provide a statement of purpose, written in English, evidencing your motivation and suitability for graduate study at Oxford.
Your commitment to the study of Judaism and Christianity in the Graeco-Roman World and further indication of how you meet the required level of ability in both Hebrew and Greek will be assessed. The statement may also include details of your possible future research plans, career aspirations, and what you hope to do with this Oxford qualification.
It will be normal for your ideas to change subsequently in some ways as you investigate the evidence and develop your project. You should nevertheless make the best effort you can to demonstrate the extent of your research question, sources and method at this moment.
Your statement should focus on academic endeavour rather than personal achievements, interests and aspirations.
You are free to determine the length of your statement of purpose. However, if you are unsure about how much to write you should contact the faculty directly for advice.
Two essays of a maximum of 2,000 words each
Academic essays or other writing samples from your most recent qualification, written in English, are required. Extracts of the requisite length from longer work are also permissible if prefaced by a note which puts them into context.
The topic of written work should relate closely to your intended area of study. The word count does not need to include any bibliography or brief footnotes.
If possible, please ensure that the word count is clearly displayed on the document.
This will be assessed for an appropriate intellectual standard, including good theological understanding, conceptual sophistication, analytical and critical skill and the ability to sustain a cogent argument.