28 June 2021
- A longer delay of up to 45 weeks between the first and second dose of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine leads to enhanced immune response after the second dose.
- A third dose given more than 6 months after the second dose leads to a substantial increase in antibodies and induces a strong boost to immune response against SARS-CoV-2, including variants.
Research on the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, also known as the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine, indicates that a long interval between first and second doses does not compromise the immune response after a late second dose, and a third dose of the vaccine continues to boost antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. The results were released in a preprint today.
COVID-19 vaccine supply shortages are causing concerns in some countries about compromised immunity as the interval between first and second dose extends due to limited vaccine availability. When examining the effects of a delay of up to 45 weeks between first and second doses in study participants, results demonstrated that antibody levels were increased after a delayed second dose. Additionally, a longer delay between first and second doses may be beneficial, resulting in an increased antibody titre and enhanced immune response after the second dose.
Professor Sir Andrew Pollard, Professor of Paediatric Infection and Immunity and Lead Investigator of the Oxford University trial of the vaccine, says, ‘This should come as reassuring news to countries with lower supplies of the vaccine, who may be concerned about delays in providing second doses to their populations. There is an excellent response to a second dose, even after a 10 month delay from the first.’
Conversely, some countries are considering administering a third ‘booster’ dose in the future. Studying the impact of a third vaccine dose, the researchers found that antibody titres increased significantly with a third dose. T-cell response and the immune response against variants were also boosted.
‘It is not known if booster jabs will be needed due to waning immunity or to augment immunity against variants of concern,’ says Associate Professor Teresa Lambe OBE, lead senior author for these studies. ‘Here we show that a third dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 is well tolerated and significantly boosts the antibody response. This is very encouraging news, if we find that a third dose is needed.’
Side effects of the vaccine itself were also found to be well-tolerated, with lower incidents of side effects after second and third doses than after first doses.
Further research is required to follow up with study participants who received third doses beyond the period that was part of the initial study.
Notes to editors:
For more information and a copy of the pre-print, contact Gen Juillet, Media Relations Manager, University of Oxford, email@example.com
Full paper: Tolerability and immunogenicity after a late second dose or a third dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222)
About the Oxford Vaccine Group
The Oxford Vaccine Group (OVG) conducts studies of new and improved vaccines for children and adults and is based in the Department of Paediatrics at the University of Oxford. The multidisciplinary group includes consultants in vaccinology, a Director of Clinical Trials, a Senior Clinical Trials Manager, adult and paediatric clinical research fellows, adult and paediatric research nurses, project managers, statisticians, QA manager, Clinical Trials IT and Development Lead, and an administration team. The team also includes post-doctoral scientists, research assistants and DPhil students and we work together with professionals from a range of specialities such as immunologists, microbiologists, epidemiologists, health communicators, and a sociologist, a community paediatrician, the local Health Protection team and a bioethicist.
OVG is a UKCRC registered clinical trials unit working in collaboration with the Primary Care Trials Unit at the University (registration number: 52).
About the University of Oxford
Oxford University has been placed number 1 in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for the fifth year running, and at the heart of this success is our ground-breaking research and innovation.
Oxford is world-famous for research excellence and home to some of the most talented people from across the globe. Our work helps the lives of millions, solving real-world problems through a huge network of partnerships and collaborations. The breadth and interdisciplinary nature of our research sparks imaginative and inventive insights and solutions.
Through its research commercialisation arm, Oxford University Innovation, Oxford is the highest university patent filer in the UK and is ranked first in the UK for university spinouts, having created more than 200 new companies since 1988. Over a third of these companies have been created in the past three years.