Bioquality hotspots hold some of the world's rarest species. These hotspots can be discovered through field work or herbarium collections. Dr Marshall will introduce her work using both methods in tropical Africa and elsewhere. Identifying hotspots for globally rare plants is important because it concentrates research and conservation effort on them in situ. The process also helps to locate and predict the occurrence of globally rare species, which may be targeted for ex situ protection such as seed banking or cultivation. She will introduce the work we have being doing both in situ and ex situ, with OBGA, including our ongoing collaboration in Japan.