ADVISORY COMMITTEE AND ELECTORAL BOARD
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CONFERMENT OF DEGREE BY DIPLOMA
The following Diploma of the Degree of Doctor of Civil Law was read by the Public Orator
when the degree was conferred in a Congregation held on Thursday, 17 March 2005.
His Excellency CARLO AZEGLIO CIAMPI, President of the Italian Republic
CANCELLARIVS MAGISTRI SCHOLARES
OMNIBVS AD QVOS PRAESENTES
SALVTEM IN DOMINO SEMPITERNAM
CVM diu ex more nobis fuerit civitatum externarum Praesides praecipuo aliquo honore
quantum possumus insignire, eosque praesertim quorum labores et civibus suis et universae
litterarum reipublicae profuerunt:
CVMque Vir Excellentissimus CAROLVS AZEGLIO CIAMPI, Rei Publicae Italicae
Praeses, civitati praesideat quae nobiscum artissimis amicitiae vinculis coniungitur;
CVMque Saturnia illa terra, magna parens frugum, magna virum, omnibus maximam moveat
CVMque Italicorum mos cultus artes orbem terrarum illustraverint;
CVMque nos Oxonienses res Italas Romanorumque triumphos per octo iam saecula
CVMque studia item Italiae recentioris diu apud nos floruerint, quae promovit ipsorum
civium magna liberalitas;
CVMque ipse Aerario Saturni quindecim annos summa diligentia praesederit;
CVMque multos commentarios de rebus oeconomicis stilo acutissimo exaraverit;
CVMque artem populi regendi sagaciter descripserit;
CVMque ad summum gradum honoris abhinc sex annos plausu universo sit creatus;
CVMque cives suos, gentem animosam ac facundam, consilio et ratione gubernaverit;
NOS ERGO, tanti viri prudentiam sapientiam humanitatem admirati, in frequenti
Congregationis Domo praedictum Praesidem DOCTOREM in Iure Civili renuntiamus eumque
vi ac virtute huius Diplomatis omnibus iuribus et privilegiis adficimus quae ad hunc gradum
THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS, AND SCHOLARS
UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD
TO WHOMSOEVER THESE PRESENTS SHALL COME
MAY THE LORD EVER PRESERVE AND KEEP YOU
WHEREAS it has long been our custom to confer such honours as are in our power on the
Heads of other nations, and more particularly on those whose achievements have conferred
benefits both on their own citizens and on the Republic of Letters as a whole:
AND WHEREAS His Excellency CARLO AZEGLIO CIAMPI, President of the Italian
Republic, is head of a state to which we are bound by close ties of friendship;
AND WHEREAS Italy, in Virgil's words the land of Saturn, great mother of crops, great
mother of men, excites the admiration of all people;
AND WHEREAS Italian culture and civilisation have illuminated the whole world;
AND WHEREAS we in Oxford have studied ancient Rome'Italian history and the
of the Romans', to quote Virgil againcontinuously for eight centuries;
AND WHEREAS Italian Studies too have long flourished among us, with generous support
from citizens of Italy;
AND WHEREAS President Ciampi was an outstanding Governor of the Bank of Italy for
AND WHEREAS he has written many penetrating reports and articles on economic
AND WHEREAS he has discussed politics shrewdly in his book Un Metodo per
AND WHEREAS he was elected head of state six years ago to general approbation;
AND WHEREAS he has guided his fellow citizens, a spirited and eloquent people, with a
NOW THEREFORE WE, in admiration of his eminent sagacity, wisdom and culture, do
here in this full House of Congregation pronounce the aforesaid President a DOCTOR in our
Faculty of Civil Law, and by the virtue and power of this Diploma we invest him with all
the rights and privileges which belong to that Degree.
HIS EXCELLENCY made the following reply:
Mr Chancellor, Ladies and Gentlemen,
Thank you for your kind words and for the warm welcome which you and all the Members
of the University have extended to me.
Today you awarded me the Degree by diploma of Doctor of Civil Law and I am most
grateful for this flattering distinction that has been conferred upon me.
Italian culture is at home here.
Academic relations between Oxford and Italian universities have continued without
interruption since the first exchanges between jurists from Bologna and the Oxford School
of Law. These relations were sustained by the values of humanism, and have created a
lasting bond between Mediterranean and Northern Europe.
The European Union is today the most important political union in the world and the largest
The United Kingdom has played a decisive role in this process. Allow me to mention three
examples: the development in the immediate post-war years, with the prominent contribution
of Winston Churchill, of a strong sense of European solidarity which resulted in the creation
of the Council of Europe; Britain's vision to involve and reunite the whole of Europe thus
fractures of the Cold War; and and the development of a European military capability, the
absence of which became painfully evident following the disintegration of Yugoslavia.
The vision and determination of Europe's founding nations, which Italy is proud to be part
of, helped eliminate the perverse logic of opposing alliances, led to the establishment of the
first European institutions, and brought about a lasting reconciliation.
Successive enlargements of the European Unionespecially the latest which seals
Europe's historic reunificationhave consolidated democracy and stability in our
The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe reinforces the identity of the European
Union, ensures the effectiveness and transparency of its institutions and guarantees an easier
application of the principle of subsidiarity. It also provides for better governance of the
Without the rules laid down by the Treaty, it would be hard to imagine that a
twenty-five-nation Europe, let alone one with twenty-seven or more members, could function.
Therefore the prompt adoption of the European Constitution is a requirement for all Member
The European Union, resulting from the new constitutional framework, is based on the twin
legitimacy of states and peoples.
It operates now, and will do so in the future , through a balance between inter-governmental
co-operation and shared sovereignty. Its flexible architecture allows Member States to
participate in certain areas of Union policies while staying out of others.
This is exemplified by the existence of institutions such as the European Central
Bankthe body governing the joint monetary policy of the states who have freely
chosen a common currencyalongside bodies where national economic policies are
agreed and co-ordinated. This is a development unprecedented in history enabling
nation-states to pool their sovereignty in order to have greater economic influence.
The European Union is the way for European nations to guarantee their own future.
This important and challenging process of European unification is occurring at a time of
complex international developments. The pace of change in other parts of the world is in
certain respects alarming for our continent and requires that we be up to the challenge.
It becomes clearer every day that separate national policies are insufficient when it comes to
regulating the world market and improving Europe's competitiveness within a framework of
clearly-defined rules, contributing to the complex process of building a lasting peace in the
Middle East, fighting terrorism and the dissemination of weapons of mass destruction,
bridging the world's glaring economic and social inequalities, and managing our planet's
natural resources. Such daunting challenges cannot be met successfully on a purely national
The very awareness of the extent and urgency of these issues has raised the need for the
improved governance of the European Union and has started the process leading to the
approval of the European Constitution.
The ratification of the Treaty is the opportunity to take on our global responsibilities as
Europeans and to flesh out the freely-made decision of our Governments to join in a common
Ladies and Gentlemen,
ltaly's participation in that endeavour stems from its auspicious decision to become a
Founding Member of the European Community and from its determination to strengthen the
European Union's role in the world. We continue to believe in the historic dream of
European unity, which remains the guiding star of our international policy.
I was born in 1920. I served as a soldier in the Second World War. I will never forget the
scourges of nationalistic rivalry and totalitarianism. As an Italian and a European citizen, I
feel the duty to point out, especially to the younger generations, the value of the unity of our
continent and the need to continue along the chosen path.
There has been growing awareness over the years that Europe must speak with a firm and
authoritative voice. With this spirit, the Constitutional Treaty provides for comprehensive and
well-defined mechanisms to increase the effectiveness of European foreign and security
policy, which affirms and safeguards both common goals and the vital interests of Member
States. It is the litmus-test for Europe's ability to fulfil its tasks.
The growing number of problems requiring a common approach, the existence of shared
objectives, and the dynamism of new protagonists on the international scene demand that
Europe make its voice heard on major international issues. Joining forces is a guarantee
against the risk that individual countries lose ground in the hierarchy of international
relations. Europe's experience holds a strong appeal for the whole world.
The constructive coexistence of different peoples sharing fundamental values within a
common territory and system, the importance which Europe attaches to the primacy of law,
the uniqueness of Europe's historic experience over the past fifty years, have kindled hopes
in many parts of the globe, including Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
When Europe speaks with one voice, the effectiveness of its action is increased and meets
with growing consensus.
It is no accident that whenever a political, economic, or environmental crisis occurs, pressure
increases for a European presence and there is more room for joint initiatives. That much
was clear during the recent institutional crisis in Ukraine and in the aftermath of the tragic
tsunami which hit south-east Asia.
A European Foreign Minister, representing joint objectives which reflect our common
interests, is the least we can aim for if we are to make Europe more visible and
The European Union's tasks have increased in areas whose relevance is undisputed, as is the
need for a common European approach.
The Union is called upon to take on its responsibilities, first and foremost in the areas close
to its own borders, for example:
in the Balkans, where our task is far from over. We must establish a model of
dialogue and coexistence there, based on the rejection of nationalism and on the respect of
in the Mediterranean, whose stability is essential for Europe's security, and which
must once again become the place where different cultures and religions meet, on the basis
of mutual respect and understanding;
in the Middle East, where encouraging developments are taking place which,
however, now have to be translated into concrete progressin the
IsraeliPalestinian dialogue and in support of the democratic and civic renewal of the
peoples in the region;
in Africa, where the extent and urgency of problems requires increased collaboration
with the African Union and the United Nations in order to stabilise crisis areas, consolidate
the rule of law, and fight underdevelopment;
and in the southern Caucasus, where European efforts at achieving stabilisation will
support progress in a conflict-ridden area.
The Union plays a key role in advancing the major ethical and environmental
issuesfrom the International Criminal Court to the Kyoto Protocol. It is playing a
decisive rolecontributing about half of all official international development
aidin the achievement of the Millennium Objectives, the United Nation's key project
for helping a vast part of humankind escape from poverty.
These results mirror the economic benefits of sharing a single, open market and the same
regulatory framework for international trade, as well as those stemming from the physical
elimination of internal frontiers and from the introduction of a single currency adopted to
date by twelve Member States.
The European Union has to face new commitments which will increase its credibility and
The implementation of the Lisbon Strategy is necessary if the European economy is to grow
and become more competitive, and if the great single market in which all Member States of
the European Union participate is to be consolidated.
Other no less important benefits are provided by the European Union to its citizens. They
include increased security stemming from the co-ordinated fight against terrorism and
organised crime; and the education which hundreds of thousands of our young people receive
through programmes such as Erasmus.
Europe does not act alone in the world, nor does it wish to antagonise anyone. The recent
Euro-Atlantic summit in Brussels dispelled a source of worry. It confirmed that Europe and
the United States share many values and interests developed through centuries of common
history. It signalled the end of the harmful divisions which had emerged at the time of the
The Euro-Atlantic summit launched a new challenge: an influential Europe will never be a
rival of the United States; a strongly united Europe is in the interest of the United States
The success of the Atlantic partnership depends on acceptance of two fundamental
prerequisites which, however, have yet to be consolidated and better defined: recognition by
the United States of the European Union's political identity; and acceptance on Europe's part
that it must be consistent in its dialogue with the United States.
The defence of freedom and democracy is the lifeblood of the Atlantic relationship. It
reminds us that our ties are much stronger than anything that may divide us.
Renewed dialogue between Europe and the United States enables us, with mutual benefit, to
strengthen our common effort to confront and defeat terrorism and poverty and to deal with
environmental problems .
On that renewed basis the West, as a civilisation whose origins lie in the thousands-year-old
history of the peoples of Europe, can once again be a source of inspiration to new
generations and offer political ideals and models to countries around the world. 2005 must
be the year when Europe confirms that it is determined to speak with one voice. It must
show that Europe and the United States are prepared to face the challenges of the twenty-first
century together. It must promote an increased dialogue with other cultures.
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Review of Politics and International Relations
The Social Sciences Board is undertaking a review of the Department of Politics and
International Relations as part of its programme of regular rolling reviews of units under its
aegis. The Head of Division, Mr D.A. Hay, will chair the review committee, the terms of
reference of which are:
(i) to review the quality of teaching and research in Politics and International Relations
by reference to international standards of excellence;
(ii) to review the strategy, resources and management structures in the department,
including: departmental strategic plans; staff recruitment, retention and workload;
accommodation and future space needs; finances; development; organisation and
administration in the department; relations with other departments and with the colleges;
(iii) to review progress since the last review in 1998, and to identify any further action
required in the light of changed circumstances during the period since that review;
(iv) to make recommendations to the divisional board, bearing in mind where there are
financial implications the level of resources likely to be available within the University and
possible alternative ways of raising funds to implement them;
(v) to refer the recommendations to the Planning and Resource Allocation Committee
Educational Policy and Standards Committee as appropriate.
The membership of the committee is as follows:
Mr D.A. Hay, Head of the Social Sciences Division
Professor Bob Goodin, Australian National University
Professor James Mayall, Cambridge
Professor Susan Mendus, York
Mr Andrew Dilnot, Principal of St Hugh's College
Professor John Gardner, Faculty of Law
Professor Neil MacFarlane, St Anne's College
The review committee would welcome written comments on matters falling within its
terms of reference. These should be sent to the secretary of the review committee, Ms Jane
Dale, Social Sciences Division, 34 St Giles', by Wednesday, 27
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On the recommendation of the Saïd Business School, the Social Sciences Board has
conferred the title of Visiting Professor of Accounting on PROFESSOR DAVID COOPER
(B.SC. (ECON.), PH.D. Manchester), for three years from 24 April 2005.
Department of Social Policy and Social Work
The Social Sciences Board has appointed G.A.N. SMITH, B.PHIL., MA, Reader in Social
Policy and Fellow of Green College, as Head of the Department of Social Policy and Social
Work for two years from 1 October 2005.
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ADVISORY COMMITTEE AND ELECTORAL
The composition of the advisory committee to the post below, proceedings to fill which are
currently in progress, is as follows:
Regius Professorship of Civil Law
Mr Vice-Chancellor ex officio
The Warden of All Souls ex officio
The Rt. Hon. Lord Rodger
of Earlsferry Council
Mr J. Cartwright Council
Mr D. Hay Social Sciences Board
Professor D. Ibbetson Social Sciences Board
Professor E. McKendrick Social Sciences Board
Dr A. Davies Social Sciences Board
Dr M. Ryan All Souls College
The composition of the electoral board to the post below, proceedings to fill which are
currently in progress, is as follows:
Professorship of Computing Science
Dr W.D. Macmillan Mr Vice-Chancellor 
Professor M.Y. Vardi Council
Professor S. Goldwasser Council
Professor M. Paterson Mathematical and Physical Sciences Board
Professor A.W. Roscoe Mathematical and Physical Sciences Board
Professor S. Abramsky Mathematical and Physical Sciences Board
Professor D.C. Clary Mathematical and Physical Sciences Board
Professor P. Jeavons St Anne's College
Professor T.J. Lyons St Anne's College
 Appointed by Mr Vice-Chancellor under the provisions of Sects. 10 and 11 of Statute IX
(Supplement (1) to Gazette No. 4633, 9 October 2002, Vol. 133, p. 108).
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