University Acts

Contents of this section:

[Note. An asterisk denotes a reference to a previously published or recurrent entry.]

Return to Contents Page of this issue


COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY

Decrees Council has made the following decrees, to come into effect on 5 April.

Decree (1): Arrangements for the Nuffield Benefaction for the Advancement of Medicine

Explanatory note

The following decree makes changes to the composition and period of office of the Nuffield Medical Trustees which a previous decree purported to make in 1998 but which, it was subsequently discovered, required the agreement of the Charity Commission. This agreement has now been obtained. Opportunity is also taken in the following decree to bring the stated powers of the trustees and the Benefaction Committee back into line with the 1936 Deed of Trust, omitting reference to the General Board and the General Fund (which no longer exist), to make the composition of the Benefaction Committee consistent with the deed by providing for NHS representation on the committee, and to delete obsolete parts of the legislation governing the Nuffield Benefactions.

Text of Decree (1)

1 In Ch. IX, Sect. I, § 248 [1], concerning the Nuffield Benefaction for the Advancement of Medicine (Statutes, 2000, pp. 692--4), delete cll. 1--5 and substitute:

`1. (1) For the purposes of the trust created by the Deed of Covenant and Trust executed by Lord Nuffield on 24 November 1936 there shall be a body of trustees, and this body shall be composed as follows:

(a) as Chairman, a person who shall be appointed on the occurrence of each vacancy by the Chancellor of the University, except that the Chancellor shall at his or her sole discretion have the right from time to time to revoke any such appointment;

(b) the Vice-Chancellor;

(c)–(e) three persons appointed by the Chancellor of the University;

(f) the Regius Professor of Medicine or, whenever he or she is a trustee in another capacity, a person appointed by the Medical Sciences Board;

(g), (h) two persons appointed by Council after consultation with the Medical Sciences Board;

(i), (j) two persons appointed by Council after consultation with the Chairmen of the NHS Trusts in the City of Oxford which are concerned with teaching and research and which include a university-nominated non-executive director on their Trust Boards, and with the Chairman of the Thames Valley Strategic Health Authority.

(2) If all, or any, of the bodies specified in sub-clause (1) (i), (j) above are reconstituted or abolished, Council shall have power to decide which successor body or bodies associated with teaching and research within the Medical School of the University of Oxford shall be consulted.

(3) The following restrictions shall apply to the appointment of trustees and the retention by trustees of their office as trustee:

(a) No person appointed or being a trustee (except a trustee appointed under sub-clause (1) (a)–(e) above or the Regius Professor of Medicine) may also be a member of the Nuffield Benefaction Committee established under clause 4 below; if any member of that committee is appointed or becomes a trustee (otherwise than under sub-clause (1) (a)–(e) above or as the Regius Professor of Medicine), his or her appointment as a trustee shall be inoperative; and if any trustee (other than one appointed under sub-clause (1) (a)–(e) above or the Regius Professor of Medicine) becomes a member of that committee, he or she shall immediately cease to be a trustee.

(b) No person shall become or remain a trustee after reaching the age of 70 years.

(c) Appointed trustees shall serve for an initial period of seven years, and shall then be eligible for reappointment for further periods of five years at a time, subject in both cases to the age limit laid down by (b) above.

(d) The person or body appointing any trustee other than the Chairman shall have the power at any time to revoke the appointment of that trustee if the trustee becomes of unsound mind or goes to reside abroad or otherwise becomes incapable of satisfactorily carrying out his or her duties as trustee.

(e) Any trustee who desires to retire from his or her trusteeship may do so on giving to the University and to the person or body appointing him or her two months' notice in writing of that desire.

2. The trustees shall have full power:

(1) to determine in their sole discretion from time to time whether any object proposed to be financed out of the income or capital of the trust fund is inconsistent with the terms of the deed referred to in clause 1 (1) above;

(2) to appoint their own secretary;

(3) to make rules or by-laws as to their meetings (including what is to be the quorum for meetings) and from time to time to alter those rules or by-laws.

3. The duties of the trustees shall be:

(1) to receive and consider an annual statement of the objects proposed to be financed out of the trust fund in which shall be included an annual estimate of the income and expenditure of the trust fund; to determine whether any of the objects proposed to be financed out of the trust fund are inconsistent with the terms of the trust, and if so to notify in writing the body submitting the statement of that inconsistency, or if not to pass the annual statement and estimate;

(2) to receive annual accounts of the income of the trust fund and the expenditure defrayed from it and of any capital subject to the trust, together with an annual report on the work carried out under the trust; and to report to the University on the accounts and the annual report.

4. (1) There shall be a Nuffield Benefaction Committee composed as follows:

(a) the Vice-Chancellor;

(b) the Regius Professor of Medicine;

(c)–(g) the Nuffield Professors of Clinical Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Anaesthetics, and Orthopaedic Surgery;

( h), (i) two persons, not being Nuffield Professors, who are members of the Faculty of Clinical Medicine and who shall be appointed by the Medical Sciences Board;

(j) the Director of Clinical Studies;

(k) the Director of Postgraduate Medical Education and Training;

(l), (m) two persons appointed by the Thames Valley Strategic Health Authority (or, if the Thames Valley Strategic Health Authority ceases to exist, the relevant successor body) in consultation with the bodies responsible for the management of the teaching hospitals in Oxford.

(2) The committee shall have power to co-opt not more than two persons as additional members for periods of two years at a time.

5. (1) The duties of the committee shall be:

(a) having satisfied the Director of Finance and Secretary of the Chest that the estimated expenditure is not in excess of the estimated income, to prepare and to submit to the trustees before the end of each Trinity Term an annual statement of the objects proposed to be financed out of the trust fund, in which shall be included an annual estimate of the income of the trust fund and of the cost of carrying the scheme into effect;

(b) to prepare an annual report and annual accounts and to submit them to the trustees.

(2) The committee may act notwithstanding any vacancy or vacancies in its membership.

6. The Secretary of the Medical Sciences Board shall act as secretary of the committee.

7. The Director of Finance and Secretary of the Chest shall, on the requisition of the committee or in accordance with the provisions of this decree, as the case may be, make payments out of the income of the trust fund in accordance with the estimates prepared by the committee and passed by the trustees, except that capital expenditure may be met out of the capital of the trust fund if provisions for its repayment out of the income of the trust fund is made to the satisfaction of the Director of Finance and Secretary of the Chest.

8. Any of the clauses of this decree may be modified by a further decree, and this decree or any further decree may be modified and/or replaced in whole or in part by a statute, if in the case of a modification the trustees have first certified in writing to the Vice-Chancellor that the proposed modification is not inconsistent with the terms of the deed referred to in clause 1 (1) above.

2 Ibid., delete part [2], concerning Gifts towards costs of Buildings (p. 694), and part [3], concerning Superannuation Contributions chargeable on Funds of the Nuffield Benefaction for the Advancement of Medicine (p. 695), and renumber existing part [4] (p. 696) as part [2].

3 This decree shall have immediate effect, except that existing trustees shall hold office under the provisions applying at the time of their appointment.

Return to List of Contents of this section


Decree (2): Academic Dress

Explanatory note

Council has authorised the Vice-Chancellor to make all regulations relating to academic dress in future. At present there is a short decree making certain general provisions governing academic dress (Statutes, 2000, p. 779), under which the Vice-Chancellor has made detailed rulings (ibid., pp. 779–83). The following decree accordingly repeals the existing decree. The new Academic Dress Regulations made by the Vice-Chancellor, as now authorised by Council, are published in Supplement (1) to Gazette No. 4617, 20 March 2002, p. 909.

Text of Decree (2)

In Ch. XI (Statutes, 2000, p. 779), delete Sect. IV and renumber existing Sectt. V–XIII (pp. 783–811) as Sectt. IV–XII.

Return to List of Contents of this section


SOCIAL SCIENCES BOARD

Decree

The Social Sciences Board, with the approval of the Educational Policy and Standards Committee of Council, has made the following decree, to come into effect on 5 April.

Decree (3): Increase in the number of compulsory subjects for the Honour School of Jurisprudence

Explanatory note

The following decree, made by the Social Sciences Board, on the recommendation of the Law Board, with the approval of the Educational Policy and Standards Committee of Council, increases the number of subjects to be taken in the Honour School of Jurisprudence from 8.5 to 9. This permits an increase in the number of compulsory subjects for the Honour School from four to seven, as recommended by the Law Faculty's review of the BA.

Associated changes in regulations are set out in `Examinations and Boards' below.

Text of Decree (3)

1 In Examination Decrees, 2001, p. 237, ll. 16–17 and ll. 19–20, in each case delete `eight standard subjects and one special subject' and substitute `either nine standard subjects or eight standard subjects and two special subjects'.

2 This decree shall be effective from 1 October 2005.

Return to List of Contents of this section


EDUCATIONAL POLICY AND STANDARDS COMMITTEE OF COUNCIL

Decree

The Educational Policy and Standards Committee of Council has made the following decree, to come into effect on 5 April.

Decree (4): Revision of the decree governing the Degree of Doctor of Medicine

Explanatory note

Possible changes to the Degree of Doctor of Medicine have been under consideration for some time, following the report of a working party of the former Clinical Medicine and Physiological Sciences Boards. It is clear that there are deficiencies in the present arrangements for the degree, and in order to deal with these deficiencies, the Educational Policy and Standards Committee of Council has, on the recommendation of the Medical Sciences Board, made the following decree. The principal reforms are that the option to submit published work as a thesis is explicitly restricted to established senior staff; the minimum period of registration for students submitting a dissertation is increased from four to six terms from the point of registration; a system of Advisers is instituted to provide limited support for students submitting a dissertation; students submitting a dissertation are required to confirm their status as students for the degree not later than six terms after registration; the application for appointment of examiners for students submitting a dissertation may be submitted in advance of the submission of the thesis itself; a thesis may be referred back for revision and resubmission on one occasion; and a fee schedule is established commensurate with the proposed new structure for the degree.

Associated changes in regulations are set out in `Examination and Boards' below.

Text of Decree (4)

1 In Examination Decrees, 2001, delete from p. 899, l. 15 to p. 902, l. 3 and substitute:

`§ 3. Status of Student for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine [1]

1. Any person may be admitted to the status of Student for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine if

either

(1) he or she has been admitted to the Degree of Bachelor of Medicine and has entered upon the thirty-sixth term from his or her matriculation, or, in the case of a person who has incorporated as a Bachelor of Medicine, the thirty-sixth term from the date of his or her matriculation at the University of Cambridge, or, in the case of a person who has been admitted to the Second Examination for the Degree of Bachelor of Medicine under the provisions of § 2, cl. 12 of this section, the twenty-seventh term from his or her matriculation;

or

(2) he or she holds the Degree of Master of Arts of the University (other than a degree by decree or resolution or an honorary degree), has previously been entered in the Register of University Medical Students and has passed the First Examination for the Degree of Bachelor of Medicine of this University, holds a degree qualifying him or her to be placed on the Medical Register, and has entered upon the thirty-sixth term from his or her matriculation.

2. It shall be the duty of the Secretary of Faculties and Academic Registrar to keep a Register of those admitted to the status of Student for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine.

3. On application for admission to the status of Student for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine, the applicant shall state whether he or she will wish to submit as his or her dissertation a series of papers or books, as permitted under § 7, cl. 2 of this section.

§ 4. Registration for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine

1. Except in the case of submission of published work as a dissertation for the degree, no student shall submit a dissertation until at least the beginning of the sixth term after the Medical Sciences Board has granted his or her admission.

2. A student must carry out the bulk of the research for the dissertation during the period in which he or she is registered.

3. If the dissertation, including published work submitted as a dissertation, has not been submitted for examination before the fifteenth term after admission has been granted, a student shall be required to seek readmission.

§ 5. Advisers of Students for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine

1. (1) Except in the case of students submitting published work as a dissertation for the degree, every student on admission as a Student for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine shall be allocated to an Adviser in Oxford appointed by the Medical Sciences Board in the student's area of research.

(2) In the case of students working outside Oxford, each student shall be required to seek additional advice from a senior member of the academic or clinical staff at the institution at which the research is to be pursued; and the student shall notify the Medical Sciences Board of the name of that person and provide a written statement signed by that person confirming that he or she is willing to undertake the role of an additional Adviser.

2. (1) It shall be the duty of the Adviser to offer support and assistance to the student in the manner prescribed in the Memorandum of Guidance for Advisers and Students for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine as published from time to time by the Medical Sciences Board.

(2) The Adviser shall submit reports on the progress of the student's work at the beginning of each Michaelmas and Trinity Term, and the reports of Advisers outside Oxford shall, in the case of the relevant students, also be received by the Adviser in Oxford.

(3) It shall be the responsibility of the Adviser at the host institution (whether that is Oxford or elsewhere) to inform the Medical Sciences Board if he or she is of the opinion that the student is unlikely to reach the standard required for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine.

3. (1) Except when approval has been given for submission of published work as a dissertation for the degree, it shall be the duty of every Student for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine to seek the advice of the Adviser (or, in the case of students working outside Oxford, both Advisers) at an early stage of the proposed research and to seek comments on his or her dissertation before its submission.

(2) During the course of the research the student shall maintain contact with the Adviser or Advisers in the manner prescribed in the Memorandum of Guidance for Advisers and Students for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine.

§ 6. Confirmation of status as a Student for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine

1. (1) Except in the case of submission of published work as a dissertation, a student registered for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine must, not later than the sixth term and not earlier than the third term after that in which he or she was admitted to the status of Student for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine, apply to the Medical Sciences Board for confirmation of that status.

(2) Except in the case of students submitting published work as a dissertation, all Students for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine shall have their status confirmed before they may make an application for the appointment of examiners.

2. Students applying for confirmation of status shall submit their application to the Medical Sciences Board through the Secretary of Faculties and Academic Registrar; and each application shall be accompanied by:

(1) a report on the work undertaken since registration;

(2) a statement from the Adviser at the place where the work is being undertaken commenting on whether the student's progress provides firm evidence that the work when completed is likely to reach the standard required for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine.

3. (1) If, after considering a student's application for confirmation of status, the Medical Sciences Board concludes that the student's progress does not warrant confirmation, the board may permit the submission of a further application not later than the third term after the original application.

(2) If the second application is unsuccessful, the student's name shall be removed from the Register of Students for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine.

4. Except in the case of submission of published work as a dissertation for the degree, a Student for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine shall cease to hold that status unless it has been confirmed within nine terms of his of her admission to that status.

§ 7. Examination of Students for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine

1. A Student for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine who has, where applicable, fulfilled the requirements set out in §§ 4 and 6 of this section, and whose status has not expired, may apply to the Medical Sciences Board for the appointment of examiners and for leave to supplicate for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine.

2. (1) A Student for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine may

either

(a) submit a dissertation upon a subject which, together with the proposed manner of treating it, has previously been approved by the Medical Sciences Board;

or

(b) in exceptional circumstances, submit as his or her dissertation a series of papers or books published at least twelve months before the proposed date of submission, if the previous approval of the Medical Sciences Board has been given after consideration of the seniority of the student (who shall be required to have held a career-grade post for a period of at least fifteen years prior to submission), and the opinions of any referees who may be consulted.

(2) Submission of published works as a dissertation shall be permitted only when there is evidence of outstanding quality in the scientific papers or other works intended for submission; it shall also be a requirement that the published works be accompanied by a general introduction and a general conclusion and that they form a continuous theme.

3. Applications for the appointment of examiners and for leave to supplicate shall be made to the Medical Sciences Board through the Graduate Studies Office and shall include:

(1) a statement by the candidate that the thesis is his or her own work, except where otherwise indicated;

(2) a statement by the candidate of what part, if any, of the thesis has already been accepted, or is concurrently being submitted, for any degree or diploma or certificate or other qualification in this University or elsewhere;

(3) a statement, where applicable, from the Adviser at the place where the research was undertaken certifying that the candidate has sought his or her advice as appropriate;

(4) a statement from the candidate's college in support of the application;

(5) two printed or typewritten copies of an abstract of the thesis, which shall not normally exceed 300 words in length.

4. Where the Medical Sciences Board has given approval for submission of published work as a dissertation, two printed or typewritten copies of the thesis may be submitted by the student immediately after approval, in a format which is in accordance with the instructions obtainable from the Medical Sciences Board through the Graduate Studies Office.

5. In all other cases, students shall submit an application in accordance with clause 2 above up to four months in advance of submitting two printed or typewritten copies of the thesis in a format which is in accordance with the instructions obtainable from the Medical Sciences Board through the Graduate Studies Office.

6. If a student has not submitted his or her thesis for examination within twelve months from submission of the application under the provisions of clause 2 above, then the application shall lapse.

7. (1) On receipt of an application the Medical Sciences Board shall appoint two examiners, neither of whom shall be the student's Adviser, and one of whom shall be external to the University.

(2) The duties of the examiners shall be: (a) to consider the thesis and the abstract of it submitted by the candidate, except that they shall exclude from consideration in making their report any part of the thesis that either has already been accepted, or is concurrently being submitted, for any degree or diploma or certificate or other qualification in this University or elsewhere, or does not represent the candidate's own work;

(b) to examine the candidate orally in the subject of his or her thesis, unless, in exceptional circumstances in the case of submission of published work as a dissertation, the board agrees, on the recommendation of the examiners, to dispense with this requirement;

(c) to report to the Medical Sciences Board through the Secretary of Faculties and Academic Registrar on the scope, character, and quality of the work submitted, in the manner prescribed in clause 9 below; (d) to return to the candidate the copies of the thesis and abstract.

8. (1) The Medical Sciences Board shall have power to make regulations concerning the notice to be given of the oral examination, and of the time and place at which it may be held.

(2) The examination may be attended by any member of the University in academic dress, while non-members may attend only with the consent of the examiners.

(3) The Vice-Chancellor and Proctors after consultation with the board may decide (either at their own discretion or at the request of the student or the supervisor or department) to forbid the attendance of any person or all persons (other than the examiners and the candidate) or to impose any condition on attendance if and to the extent that such action is in their view necessary to protect the interests of the University or the candidate or both, and the examiners shall be informed accordingly and shall include this information in the notice of examination.

9. Having completed the examination, the examiners may make one of the following recommendations in their report to the Medical Sciences Board, or they may alternatively proceed in accordance with the provisions of clause 10 below:

(1) that the board grant the student leave to supplicate for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine; if making this recommendation, the examiners shall include in their report statements that:

(a) the student possesses a comprehensive knowledge of the particular field of learning in which the thesis falls;

(b) the thesis embodies original observations on either clinical or experimental material;

(c) the work done by the student and embodied in the thesis has resulted in an original and substantial contribution to medical science;

(d) the thesis is presented in a lucid and scholarly manner;

(e) the student has presented a satisfactory abstract of the thesis;

(f) in their opinion the thesis merits the award of the Degree of Doctor of Medicine;

(2) that the board offer the student the option of reference of the thesis back to him or her in order that he or she may revise it for re-examination for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine on not more than one occasion, on the basis that the thesis has not reached the standard required for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine; if making this recommendation, the examiners shall annex to their report to the board a statement, for transmission to the student, setting out the respects in which the thesis falls below the standard required for the degree and what changes are necessary for it to reach that required standard, and setting a deadline (subject to the agreement of the board) for resubmission;

(3) that, in the case of a student whose thesis has already been referred back on one occasion, the student's application for leave to supplicate be refused; if making this recommendation, the examiners shall annex to their report a statement, for transmission to the student, setting out the respects in which the thesis falls below the standard required for the degree.

10. (1) If the examiners are satisfied that the student's thesis is of sufficient merit to qualify for the degree but consider, nevertheless, that before the thesis is deposited the student should make minor corrections (which are not sufficiently substantial to justify reference back for re-examination), they shall require the student to correct the thesis to their satisfaction before they submit their report.

(2) If the student has not completed these corrections within three calendar months of the date of the oral examination, his or her name shall be removed by the Secretary of the Faculties and Academic Registrar from the Register of Students for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine, except that the board may, on good cause shown by the student, grant an extension of time of three further calendar months in which the student may fulfil this requirement before the removal of his or her name from the Register.

(3) No subsequent extension shall be granted, but it shall be open to a student who has failed to fulfil this requirement within those three or six months in total, as the case may be, to apply to the board for reinstatement as a Student for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine, with the support of his or her college and Adviser(s), upon submission to the Secretary of Faculties and Academic Registrar of a copy of his or her thesis incorporating the required corrections, and upon payment of such reinstatement fee as may from time to time be prescribed by Council by decree; leave to supplicate shall not be granted until this fee has been paid.

11. The Medical Sciences Board may exempt a candidate who is being re-examined under the provision of clause 9 (2) above from a further oral examination, if the examiners are able to certify that they are satisfied without examining the candidate orally that they can recommend to the board in the terms required by clause 9 (1) above that he or she be given leave to supplicate for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine.

12. In an exceptional case in which the Medical Sciences Board is unable to accept the examiners' recommendation, or in which the examiners cannot reach an agreed recommendation, the board shall have power to appoint one or two new examiners, as it deems necessary, to conduct such further examination of the candidate as the board may require.

13. (1) A student who has been granted leave to supplicate by the board shall be required to submit to the Secretary of Faculties and Academic Registrar a copy of his or her thesis, incorporating any amendments or corrections required by the examiners and approved by the board, with a view to deposit in the Bodleian or other appropriate university library.

(2) Leave to supplicate shall in all cases be conditional upon fulfilment of this requirement.

14. (1) It shall be the duty of the Secretary of Faculties and Academic Registrar to notify the student of the board's decision as soon as may be.

(2) The Secretary of Faculties and Academic Registrar shall also be responsible for publishing at the end of each academic year (except in so far as it may be necessary not to publish any name in order to comply with the provisions of the Data Protection Act 1998) the names of those students to whom permission to supplicate has been granted during that year, together with a statement of the subject of the thesis written by each.

15. When, on the conclusion of an investigation of a complaint made by a student, the Proctors recommend that a student be re-examined, the board shall have power to hold a new examination.'

2 Ibid., p. 902, l. 4, renumber existing § 4 as § 8.

3 Ibid., p. 1053, after l. 7 insert new item (b) as follows and reletter existing items (b)--(d) (ll. 8--25) as items (c)–(e):

`(b) On admission to the Status of Student 
for the Degree of DM and for each subsequent 
year that the name of the student remains on 
the register of students for the degree                    250.00'.
4 Ibid., l. 23, delete `334.00' and substitute `350.00'.

5 Ibid., after l. 29 insert:

`(e) On resubmission for the degree of DM              350.00'.

6 This decree shall be effective from 1 April 2002, except that students whose proposed outlines for submission (or resubmission) of a dissertation have been approved before 1 April 2002, and students who were first examined before 1 April 2002 but who will be seeking permission to resubmit after that date, shall be examined under the provisions governing the Degree of Doctor of Medicine as they stood before that date (Examination Decrees, 2001, pp. 899–902).

Return to List of Contents of this section


Footnote

[1] Students whose proposed outlines for submission (or resubmission) of a dissertation have been approved before 1 April 2002 will be examined under the provisions governing the Degree of Doctor of Medicine as they stood before that date (Examination Decrees, 2001, pp. 899–902). Students who were first examined before 1 April 2002 but who will be seeking permission to resubmit after that date will also be re-examined under the old provisions.
Return to text

Return to List of Contents of this section


CONGREGATION 19 March

Declaration of approval of Resolutions approving the conferment of Honorary Degrees

(1) That the conferment of the Degree of Master of Arts, honoris causa, upon MARGARET GOODALL (BA Leeds) be approved.

(2) That the conferment of the Degree of Master of Arts, honoris causa, upon ROY GOODWIN be approved.

Return to List of Contents of this section


COUNCIL OF THE UNIVERSITY

Register of Congregation

Mr Vice-Chancellor reports that the following names have been added to the Register of Congregation:

Bradlow, A., Faculty of Clinical Medicine

Gao, G.F., D.Phil., Hertford

Return to List of Contents of this section


DIVISIONAL AND FACULTY BOARDS

For changes in regulations for examinations, to come into effect on 5 April, see `Examinations and Boards' below.

Return to List of Contents of this section