Examinations and Boards

Contents of this section:

[Note. An asterisk denotes a reference to a previously published or recurrent entry.]

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CHAIRMAN OF EXAMINERS

The Vice-Chancellor desires to call the attention of all examiners to the provisions of Ch. VI, Sect. ii.c, § 1, clauses 1–3 (Examination Decrees, 1995, pp. 1002–3), which require examiners in all university examinations to appoint one of their number to act as Chairman, to notify the appointment to the Vice-Chancellor, and to publish it in the University Gazette.

He desires that these appointments shall be notified to the Clerk of the Schools who will inform the Vice-Chancellor and see that notice of them is duly published in the University Gazette.

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APPOINTMENT OF EXAMINERS

The following have been appointed.

MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY

Oriental Studies

Modern Middle Eastern Studies Qualifying Examination

Persian

J.D. GURNEY, MA, D.PHIL., Wadham (vice Meisami, granted leave of absence)

For Trinity Term 1997

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MASTER OF STUDIES

Oriental Studies

Sanskrit

J.W. BENSON, MA, Wolfson
R.F. GOMBRICH, MA, D.PHIL., Balliol

Both for Trinity Term 1997

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APPOINTMENT OF EXAMINER PRO HAC VICE

The Vice-Chancellor and Proctors have appointed A.N. KINGSNORTH

(B.SC., MS London), FRCS, Professor of Surgery at Deriford Hospital, Plymouth, as an Additional Examiner in Surgery for Year 3 of the Second Examination for the degree of Bachelor of Medicine to be held in Trinity Term 1997 pro hac vice (vice Mr D.C. Dunn, M.Chir., FRCS, granted leave of absence).

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EXAMINATION SCHOOLS

Accommodation for Lectures

Michaelmas Term 1997

The Chairman of the Curators of the Schools would be grateful if Professors, Readers, and University Lecturers who wish to lecture at the Schools in Michaelmas Term 1997 could inform the Clerk of the Schools at the end of the present term. It is necessary to know whether a room suitable for an audience of more than one hundred persons is required; only the three large writing-schools will accommodate more than that number.

Afternoon lectures should normally finish by 6 p.m.

Attention is drawn to the fact that overhead projection equipment and 35-mm projectors are available. When these facilities are required the Clerk of the Schools should be notified in advance.

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CHANGES IN REGULATIONS

With the approval of the General Board, the following changes in regulations made by boards of faculties will come into effect on 30 May.

1 Boards of the Faculties of Anthropology and Geography, Biological Sciences, and Social Studies

(a) Preliminary Examination in Human Sciences

With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first examination in 1998)

1 In Examination Decrees, 1996, p. 81, l. 6, delete `The Biology of Organisms including Man' and substitute `The Biology of Organisms including Humans'.

2 Ibid., l. 18, delete `chromosome mapping' and substitute `mapping the human genome'.

3 Ibid., ll. 22–3, delete `The nature and origin of species: man's relationship to the animal kingdom; an introduction to the evidence for human evolution' and substitute:

`Mechanisms of evolutionary change: selection and adaptation, evolution of sex, altruism, kin selection and co- operation. Alternative models of evolution. The role of culture in human evolution.

The nature and origin of species. Human relationships with the animal kingdom. An introduction to the evidence for human evolution.'

4 Ibid., l. 24, after `One three-hour paper will be set.' insert `The paper will be divided into two sections: (a) Genetics and (b) Evolution. Candidates will be required to answer four questions with at least one question from each section.'

(b) Honour School of Human Sciences

With effect from 1 October 1998 (for first examination in 1999)

1 In Examination Decrees, 1996, p. 242, delete ll. 30–46 and substitute

`(1) Animal Behaviour and its Evolution

(2) Human Genetics

(3) Human Ecology

(4) Demography and population

(5a) Social Anthropology or (5b) Sociological Theory

Candidates may answer questions from either (5a) or (5b), but not from both

(6) Essay

Candidates will also be required to offer any two of the following subjects:

(7a) Developmental Psychology or (7b) Social Behaviour

Candidates may answer questions from either (7a) or (7b), but not from both

(8) Brain and Behaviour

(9) Human Evolution

(10) The Biology of Infectious Disease

(11) Health and Disease

(12) Urban and Social Geography

(13) Sociology of Industrial Societies

(14) Social Anthropology of a Selected Region

(15) Language

(16) Quantitative Methods'.

2 Ibid., l. 47, delete `For Paper 14,' and substitute `For Paper 16,'.

3 Ibid., p. 243, delete ll. 12–23 and substitute:

`1. Animal Behaviour and its Evolution

Introduction to the study of behaviour. Adaptation: behaviour and natural selection. Kin selection. Advantages and disadvantages of group living. Evolutionary stable strategies. The problems of development. Nature or Nurture: genes and behaviour. Evolutionary views of human social behaviour and the sociobiology controversy. Behaviour applied to conservation, management and welfare. Animal intelligence: pattern recognition, behavioural rhythms, perception of time, animal learning, cognitive ethology. Sexual selection. Behavioural ecology: mating systems, aggression, parent–offspring conflict, communication, parent–offspring communication and conflict. Optimality and decision-making, co-operation, cultural evolution and imitation, evolutionary psychology.

Theoretical perspectives on primate behavioural evolution. Primate communication and cognition. Deception. Reproductive decisions and behaviour. Case studies of primate socioecology.'

4 Ibid., l. 30, delete `restriction fragment length polymorphisms;'.

5 Ibid., l. 37, after `prenatal diagnosis;' insert `gene therapy;'.

6 Ibid., delete `genetic engineering' and substitute

`genetic manipulation'.

7 Ibid., l. 38, after `social implications of human genetics', insert `; major international initiatives in genetics'.

8 Ibid., delete ll. 40–9 and substitute:

`General ecology. Evolution of material culture and its impact on human ecology. Physiological aspects of reproductive profiles (from conception to birth) and how they are influenced by nutrition and the interaction between nutrition and cultural practices. Nutrition, ecology, and growth. The human ecology of infectious disease. The human ecology of chronic disease: the interaction between diet, and other aspects of the human environment as they contribute to cardiovascular disease, cancer, rheumatic disease, and birth defects. Interactions between culture and the natural environment: subsistence patterns and environmental interactions—hunting and gathering to pre-urbanised agriculture; urbanisation, agriculture and socio-political exploitation, cultural diversity and ecological awareness. Ecological ethics: beliefs and aspirations from a multicultural perspective.'

9 Ibid., p. 244, in ll. 22–3, delete `In the essay the candidate will be required to show knowledge of more than one of the basic approaches to the study of human sciences' and substitute `In the essay the candidate will be required to focus on material from within the Honour School, and must show knowledge of more than one of the basic approaches to the study of Human Sciences.'

10 Ibid., l. 29, delete `(i) an explanation of the subject in about 100 words' and substitute `(i) an explanation of the subject in about 100 words explicitly mentioning the two or more basic approaches to the study of Human Sciences that will be incorporated in the essay.' 11 Ibid., p. 245, after l. 32 delete ll. 33–48 and substitute:

`8. Brain and Behaviour (As prescribed as a paper in Group A in the examination in the Honour School of Experimental Psychology.)

9. Human Evolution

General evolution: the theory and facts of evolution. Human evolution: evidence from fossils and artefacts; aspects of palaeolithic archaeology; molecular evidence of human evolution; relationships to other primates; comparison of fossil and molecular evidence. Human nature: from animals to humans; human life histories, sex and reproductive strategies; human brains, behaviour and cognition; origins of human social behaviour. Human culture: genes, minds and culture; evolutionism; social Darwinism; sociobiology; evolutionary psychology, social learning; language and the origins of culture; gene-culture coevolution.

10. The Biology of Infectious Disease

Introduction to parasitism including the evolution of virulence. Biology of microparasites: life histories of bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminths. Introduction to parasite genetics and the molecular taxonomy of parasites. The innate and adaptive immune systems. Immunity to micro- and macroparasites. Parasite immune evasion strategies. Genetic susceptibility to disease. Host gentics and resistance to infection. Introduction to parasite ecology. Population biology of microparasites and macroparasites. Vaccination and chemotherapy. Insects and ticks as vectors. Vectors: habitats and climate. Vector-borne disease models.

11. Health and Disease

The nature of health and consequences of disease. Design and analysis of epidemiological studies. Variation in occurrence of disease with time, geography, age, and other personal characteristics. Epidemiology of common diseases, including variation, causes, and biological mechanisms. The role of medicine in cure and prevention. The role of health promotion and screening, and their costs and benefits. Organisation of health services—history, geographic differences, and current issues. Aspects of treatment of common conditions. Clinical trials. Effectiveness, efficiency and use of resources in health care.'

12 Ibid., l. 49, and p. 246, ll. 3, 11, 21, and 31 renumber paper numbers 10–14 as 12–16.

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2 Board of the Faculty of Biological Sciences

Honour School of Natural Sciences (Biological Sciences)

With effect from 1 October 1998 (for first examination in 1999)

1 In Examination Decrees, 1996, p. 416, delete ll. 21–42 and substitute:

`1. Candidates will be required to offer themselves for examination in five subjects chosen from the following

1. Evolution and Systematics

2.Quantitiative Methods

3. Animal Behaviour

4. Plant and Microbial Biology

5. Environmental Biology

6. Cell and Developmental Biology

7. The Biology of Animal and Plant Disease

All candidates will be required to offer subjects 1 and 2 and three out of subjects 3–7. In all subjects knowledge of first-year coursework will be assumed.

2.The examination shall be conducted as follows.

(a) Part A

Each candidate will be required to offer

(i) Subject 1: One three-hour written paper, to be taken on the Wednesday of the week before the start of Michaelmas Full Term of the academic year in which the examination is taken.

(ii) Subjects 3–7: An extended essay in one of the five subjects. It shall be on a topic selected from a list approved by the Sub-faculty of Biology and published in the Gazette not later than the end of the first week of Trinity Full Term of the academic year preceding the examination. Candidates may not offer themselves for examination in Part A in a subject which they also intend to offer in Parts B and C.

(b) Part B

Each candidate must complete a course assignment on each of the two subjects, from within 3–7, which they intend to offer in Part C. This will be

(i) an extended essay on a topic proposed by the student and approved by the Chairman of the Sub-faculty of Biology; or

(ii) any other assignment individually approved by the Chairman of the Sub-faculty of Biology.

The approval of assignments under (i) and (ii) shall be given not later than Friday of the eighth week of the Michaelmas Full Term of the academic year in which the examination is taken.

The course assignments shall be submitted on or before 12 noon on the Friday of the week before the start of the Trinity Full Term in which the examination is taken.

(c) Part C

Each candidate will be required to offer written papers in three subjects, as follows:

(i) One paper in subject 2;

(ii) Two papers in each of two subjects chosen from subjects 3–7. Each written paper shall be of three hours duration. For subjects 3–7, one paper shall consist of short answer questions, problems and questions based on the interpretation of observations, and data analysis; the other will consist of essay questions. No candidate may take the written papers in the subject in which his or her Part A essay has been written.

(d) Part D

2 Ibid., l. 43, delete `2' and substitute `(i)'.

3 Ibid., l. 45 delete `sixth week of the term preceding that in which' and substitute `week before the commencement of Trinity Full Term of the academic year in which'.

4 Ibid., p. 417, in l. 1 delete `3' and substitute `(ii)'.

5 Ibid., in l. 2, after `practical work' insert `and exercises in Quantitative Methods'.

6 Ibid., in l. 9, after `practical work' insert `and exercises in Quantitative Methods'.

7 Ibid., p. 417, after l. 10 insert:

`3. Extended Essays must be the candidate's own work. In the case of the Part A essay, candidates will be expected to work completely independently. In the case of essays and other assignments submitted in Part B, candidates may discuss the proposed topic, the sources available, and the method of presentation with an adviser. This adviser may also read and comment on a first draft.

Essays shall be of not more than 3,000 words, excluding any tables, figures, or references.

Essays (two copies) must be legibly typed or word processed on one side only of A4 paper, held firmly in a stiff cover, and submitted as follows:

Part A: by noon on Friday of the first week of the Michaelmas Full Term of the academic year in which the examination is taken;

Part B: by noon on Friday of the week before the Trinity Full Term of the academic year in which the examination is taken;

addressed to the Clerk of the Schools, High Street, Oxford OX1 4BG for the Chairman of the Examiners in the Final Honour School of Natural Science (Biological Sciences).

Candidates shall not deal with substantially the same material in their Part B essays as is covered in their project report. Candidates must sign a certificate stating that the essay is their own work. This certificate must be submitted at the same time as the essay in a sealed envelope addressed to the Chairman of Examiners. Each essay, and the envelope containing the certificate, must be clearly labelled with the candidate's number. The name and college of the candidate must not appear on the essay or on the envelope. No essay will be accepted if it has already been submitted, wholly or substantially, for a degree in the University or elsewhere; and the certificate must also contain a confirmation that the essay has not already been so submitted. No essay shall be ineligible because it has been submitted, in whole or in part, for any scholarship or prize in this University. All sources used in the essays must be fully documented. Each essay shall clearly indicate on the first page the part of the examination and the subject under which the essay is submitted.'

8 Ibid., l. 11, after `4.' insert `Field Work'.

9 Ibid., delete l. 13, and substitute:

`5. Viva voce Examinations. All candidates will be examined viva voce. Discussion of the project will be included in the viva voce examination.'

10 Ibid., l. 14, after `6.' insert `Use of Calculators'. 11 Ibid., l. 26, delete `and 4.'

12 Ibid., l. 34, delete `5. and 6.' and substitute `4.'

13 Ibid., l. 40, delete `7. and 8.' and substitute `5.'

14 Ibid., l. 46, delete `9. and 10.' and substitute `6.'

15 Ibid., p. 418, l. 3, delete `11. and 12.' and substitute `7.'

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3 Boards of the Faculties of English Language and Literature and Medieval and Modern Languages

Preliminary Examination in English and Modern Languages

With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first examination in 1998)

1 In Examination Decrees, 1996, p. 77, l. 40, delete `Prescribed books' and substitute `Literature papers'.

2 As for the Preliminary Examination for Modern Languages (see 5 below).

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4 Boards of the Faculties of Literae Humaniores and Medieval and Modern Languages

Preliminary Examination in Philosophy and Modern Languages

With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first examination in 1998)

In Examination Decrees, 1996, p. 95, l. 36, delete `Prescribed books' and substitute `Literature papers'.

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5 Board of the Faculty of Medieval and Modern Languages

Preliminary Examination for Modern Languages

With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first examination in 1998)

1 In Examination Decrees, 1996, p. 86, after l. 2 insert `Not more than two languages may be offered.'

2 Ibid., l. 5, delete `for the purposes of regulations 3 and 4 below'.

3 Ibid., l. 8, delete `Prescribed books' and substitute `Literature papers'.

4 Ibid., ll. 12–14 delete `(with such...permitted below)'.

5 Ibid., l. 20 delete `(1)' and run l. 19 on with l. 20.

6 Ibid., l. 23 delete `; and' and substitute `,'.

7 Ibid., delete ll. 24–8.

8 Ibid., delete ll. 44–7.

9 Ibid., delete p. 87, l. 1 to p. 91, l. 45 and substitute:

`5. Candidates must offer:

Either: I, IIA, IIB, III, IV in two modern languages:

Or: I, IIA, IIB, III, IV in a modern language together with V, VI, and VII in Latin and/or Greek;

Or: I, IIA, IIB, III, IV in a modern language together with VIII, IX, and X in Linguistics.'

6. a. Language papers

Modern Languages

I. Language I. 3 hours.

French:

The paper will consist of: (a) monolingual exercises, instructions for which will be written in French; and (b) comprehension of a passage of modern prose with questions to be answered in French (one question will require candidates to write a short piece of continuous prose).

German:

`Deutsche Gesellschaft und Kultur seit 1890.' Reading comprehension (in German) on a passage which relates to the theme of the paper. One essay in German on a topic relating to the theme of the paper.

Italian:

The paper will consist of: (a) audio or video listening comprehension exercises; (b) reading comprehension exercises; (c) one guided essay in Italian.

Spanish:

The paper will consist of: (a) translation into Spanish; (b) a guided essay of approximately 500 words (i.e. guidance to be given as to aspects of the topic addressed). 1H hours will be allowed for each part.

Portuguese:

The paper will consist of: (a) translation into Portuguese; (b) guided composition in Portuguese; (c) monolingual exercises.

Russian:

Translation into Russian and/or exercises in Russian.

Modern Greek:

Translation into Modern Greek and exercises in Modern Greek. Czech (with Slovak):

(a) a modern English prose passage; and (b) English sentences testing basic grammar, both to be translated into either Czech or Slovak.

II. Language II. The paper will be in two parts of 1H hours each.

French:

IIA. Translation from French of a prose passage.

IIB. Translation into French of a prose passage.

German:

IIA. Translation into German of a prose passage.

IIB. Translation from German of a prose passage in a modern literary register.

Italian:

IIA. Translation into Italian of a prose passage or sentences.

IIB. Translation from Italian. A passage of modern prose will be set.

Spanish:

IIA. Translation from Spanish.

IIB. A passage of Spanish prose on which candidates will be tested for comprehension by a series of questions to be answered in English.

Portuguese:

IIA. Translation from Portuguese of a prose passage in a modern literary register.

IIB. Translation from Portuguese of a prose passage in an informal register such as journalism, and an exercise or exercises in reading comprehension.

Russian:

IIA. Translation from Russian. A passage of modern prose will be set.

IIB. Translation from Russian or, at the discretion of the Moderators, comprehension exercises. Either (i) a passage of modern prose will be set for translation, or (ii) a modern passage or passages in the language will be set to test comprehension. All answers in this paper will be in English.

Modern Greek:

IIA. Translation from Modern Greek. A passage of modern prose will be set.

IIB. Comprehension exercises. A modern passage or passages in the language will be set to test comprehension. All answers in this paper will be in English.

Czech (with Slovak):

IIA and IIB. One passage of modern prose in each paper for translation from Czech into English.

Latin and Greek

V. Unseen translation. 3 hours.

Candidates may offer either Latin or Greek or both. Two passages must be offered, and in each language one prose passage and one verse passage will be set.

b. Literature papers

Modern Languages

III. Literature I. 3 hours.

French:

Short texts. Candidates will be required to study six brief but self-contained works arranged in three contrasting pairs:

A Montaigne, `Des cannibales' from the Essais
Voltaire, L'Ingénu

B Baudelaire, `Spleen et Idéal' from Les Fleurs du Mal, with thirty poems to be identified for detailed study
Aimé Césaire, Cahier d'un retour au pays natal

C Racine, Phèdre
Beckett, En attendant Godot

The paper will be examined by commentary only, with all texts set, and candidates required to offer three passages, one from each of sections A, B, and C.

German:

Commentary. Two commentaries on a choice of poems taken from an anthology, which will include some medieval poems. One commentary on an extract from one of the set texts listed under paper IV. Each year two such texts will be designated as the ones from which an extract for commentary may be taken.

Italian:

Aspects of Italian lyric poetry. Compulsory passages for explanation and detailed comment will be set.

The sonnet from the Middle Ages to the present. (Copies of the list of sonnets for the examinations in the academic year concerned will be available in the Modern Languages Faculty Office, 37 Wellington Square, from the beginning of the Michaelmas Full Term of the year.)

Ungaretti, Selections from L'Allegria and Sentimento del tempo (in Giuseppe Ungaretti, Vita d'un uomo, 106 poesie 1914–1960, Mondadori Oscar).

Spanish:

Prescribed texts to be studied in relation to various possible approaches to literature. One compulsory passage will be set for translation into English and one for commentary. Candidates will also be required to undertake two essays, to be written on texts other than the one from which the passage chosen for commentary was taken.

M. Vargas Llosa, La ciudad y los perros.

Antonio Machado, Campos de Castilla (excluding `La tierra de Alvargonzález', but including `Elogios': in Poesías completas, Selecciones Austral).

Calderùn de la Barca, El médico de su honra (ed. D.W. Cruickshank, Clásicos Castalia).

Cervantes, `Rinconete y Cortadillo', from vol. 1 of Novelas ejemplares, ed. H. Sieber, 2 vols. (Madrid: Cátedra, 1989).

Portuguese:

Prescribed texts to be studied in relation to various possible approaches to literature. Compulsory passages for explanation and detailed comment will be set. There will be a compulsory essay or commentary question on each of the set texts.

Mário de Sá-Carneiro, A confissão de Lúcio

Carlos de Oliveira, Casa na duna

Clarice Lispector, Laìos de família.

Russian:

Poetry. The examination will consist of three commentaries, each on a different author, on the set works by five authors detailed below. One commentary passage will be compulsory.

Derzhavin, Felitsa

Pushkin, Mednyi vsadnik

Lermontov, Mtsyri

Blok, Na pole Kulikovom and Dvenadtsat'

Akhmatova, Rekviem

Examiners may give some guidance to candidates about how to approach the passages set for commentary; they may also require candidates to translate some portion of the passages set for commentary into English.

Modern Greek:

War, society, and culture in twentieth-century Greece. Candidates will be examined on their knowledge of two topics. For each topic there is also one prescribed novel that deals with the topic. The topics and prescribed texts are: (1) The Asia Minor Disaster: its political and cultural background and its repercussions (Text: Dido Sotiriou, Matomena chomata); and (2) Dictatorship and War: Greek history, society and culture 1936–49 (text: Kostas Tachtsis, To trito stefani).

The paper will consist of a choice of questions on topics 1 and 2. Candidates must answer three questions. Each candidate must answer either one question relating to each of the historical topics and one to a literary text, or one question on history and one on each of the two literary texts.

Czech (with Slovak):

Prescribed texts to be studied as literature. Three compulsory passages for commentary will be set.

Short stories:

Milan Kundera, Falesny autostop

Bohumil Hrabal, Pábitelé

Ota Pavel, Zlatí úhori

Jan Neruda, Doktor Kazisvet

IV. Literature II: Prescribed texts. 3 hours.

French:

French prose fiction:

Laclos, Les Liaisons dangereuses

Balzac, La Fille aux yeux d'or

Proust, Combray

Sarraute, Le Planétarium

The paper will be examined entirely by essay, with candidates required to answer on three novels. There will be a choice of questions on each novel, and candidates will be encouraged to make connexions and comparisons between texts where appropriate.

German:

Three essays from a choice of questions on the set texts covering genre, themes, and period:

Prose:

Fontane, Die Poggenpuhls

Kafka, Die Verwandlung

Thomas Mann, Mario und der Zauberer

Toller, Eine Jugend in Deutschland

Drama:

Wedekind, Fruhlings Erwachen

Schnitzler, Liebelei

Kaiser, Von morgens bis mitternachts

Brecht, Die Dreigroschenoper

Italian:

Candidates will be expected to show knowledge of four of the six set texts listed below. Candidates will be expected to have such knowledge of the literary, intellectual, and historical background as is necessary for the understanding of these texts. Compulsory passages for commentary will not be set in the examination.

Modern Italian Narrative:

Primo Levi, Se questo è un uomo

Cesare Pavese, La luna e i falò

Leonardo Sciascia, A ciascuno il suo

Natalia Ginzburg, Lessico famigliare

Italo Calvino, Palomar

Antonio Tabucchi, Sostiene Pereira

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Spanish:

Prescribed texts to be studied in relation to general trends in literature or thought or to historical background. Compulsory passages for explanation and detailed comment will not be set.

The Spanish Ballad Tradition:

Traditional romances:

El romancero viejo (ed. M. Díaz Roig, Cátedra, Madrid, 1979), poems Nos. 1–3, 5–6, 8–9, 11, 13–14, 23–4, 29–32, 38–59, 63–6, 68, 71–3, 76, 78, 83, 85–6, 88, 91, 94, 96–9, 101, 104, 111, 115–19, 121, 125–8.

Golden Age:

Lope de Vega, Lírica (ed. J.M. Blecua, Clásicos Castalia), poems Nos. 1–2, 6–10, 125, and 126.

Gùngora, Romances (ed. Antonio Carreûo, Cátedra, Madrid, 1982), poems Nos. 3, 10–11, 15–16, 18, 23, 27, 48, 52, 58, and 79.

Francisco de Quevedo, Poemas escogidos (ed. J.M. Blecua, Clásicos Castalia, Madrid), poems Nos. 155, 160, 165, 167, and 172.

Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries:

Duque de Rivas, El conde de Villamediana; El Alcázar de Sevilla; El fratricidio; Bailén (from Romances histùricos, ed. S. García, Cátedra).

Antonio Machado, `La tierra de Alvargonzálex' (from Poes’as completas, Selecciones Austral).

F. García Lorca, Romancero gitano (ed. Mario Hernández, Alianza).

Portuguese:

The examination will consist of:

(a) a commentary on passages chosen from two of the set texts given below; (b) an essay, on one of the remaining three texts; (c) an essay on the historical development of the auto.

Candidates will be expected to show knowledge of at least one text from each of groups A, B, and C below.

A Gil Vicente, Auto da Barca do Inferno; Auto da India

B Almeida Garrett, Um auto de Gil Vicente

C Suassuna, Auto da Compadecida
Cabral de Melo Neto, Vida e Morte Severina

Russian:

The paper will consist of: (a) one compulsory commentary; and (b) two essays each from a choice of two covering the other two set authors. Examiners may give some guidance to candidates about how to approach the passage set for commentary; they may also require candidates to translate some portion of the passage set for commentary into English.

Pushkin, Pikovaya dama

Chekhov, Sluchai iz praktiki; Anna na shee; Dom s mezoninom.

Trifonov, Obmen

Modern Greek:

Twentieth-century Greek poetry and prose. The syllabus will consist of a selection of poems and short stories by a variety of authors. (A list of the selection for the examinations in the academic year concerned will be available in the Modern Languages Faculty Office, 37 Wellington Square, from the beginning of the Michaelmas Full Term of that year.) (Specific sections of the prescribed texts may be designated as including the passages which will be set for commentary.)

The examination paper will be divided into two sections. Section A will consists of two compulsory commentary passages from prescribed texts (one poetry passage and one prose passage). Section B will consist of a choice of essay questions, from which each candidate must choose one.

Czech (with Slovak):

Prescribed texts to be studied as literature. Essay-type questions will be set on the plays, and a compulsory passage for commentary from the poem. Candidates will be required to answer on all three texts.

Capek, Bíáá nemoc

Havel, Vyrozumení

Mácha, Máj

Latin and Greek

VI. Prescribed books. 3 hours.

The paper will consist of passages for translation and comment.

VII. Prescribed books. 3 hours.

The paper will consist of essay questions.

Papers VI and VII.

Candidates must choose two of the following four groups of texts, and state on their examination entry form which two groups they propose to offer. They must offer the same two groups for both papers.

(a) Aristophanes, Frogs 1–268, 674–15331;[1] Euripides, Bacchae; Plato, Symposium 189c–end1;[1]

[1]Note: for the purposes of the essay paper (VII), candidates who offer these texts will be expected to have knowledge of the whole work and not merely the prescribed portions.

(b) Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound; Sophocles, Antigone; Herodotus 1.1–119;

(c) Cicero, pro Murena; Sallust, Catiline; Tacitus, Annals 4;

(d) Terence, Adelphoe; Catullus 1–17, 21–60, 69–70, 72–3, 75–9, 83–8, 92–6, 100–1, 109, 115–16; Ovid, Metamorphoses 8.

The following editions of Greek and Latin texts will be used in the examination. Where no publisher's name is given, the book is published by the Clarendon Press. An asterisk (*) indicates texts in the Oxford Classical Texts series; where more than one edition has appeared, the latest will be used.

Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound: Griffith (Cambridge University Press).

Aristophanes, Frogs: Dover.

Catullus: *Mynors.

Cicero: *Clark.

Euripides, Bacchae: Dodds.

Herodotus: *Hude.

Ovid, Metamorphoses 8: Hollis.

Plato, Symposium: Dover (Cambridge University Press).

Sallust: *Reynolds.

Sophocles: *Lloyd-Jones and Wilson.

Tacitus, Annals 4: Martin and Woodman (Cambridge University Press).

Terence, Adelphoe: Martin (Cambridge University Press).

c. Linguistics

VIII. General Linguistics. 3 hours.

Candidates will be expected to be familiar with the development of contemporary linguistic theory, both synchronic and historical, and be able to discuss problems and issues in areas including semantics, pragmatics, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, language acquisition and language change.

IX. Phonetics and Phonology. 3 hours. Candidates will be expected to be familiar with principles and practice in the analysis, classification, and transcription of speech, as applied to languages in general, but with an emphasis on European languages.

X. Grammatical Analysis. 3 hours.

Candidates will be expected to be familiar with modern grammatical theory, in particular as applied to the analysis of European languages.'

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6 Boards of the Faculties of Medieval and Modern Languages and Modern History

Preliminary Examination in Modern History and Modern Languages

With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first examination in 1998)

1 In Examination Decrees, 1996, p. 85, l.19, delete `Prescribed books' and substitute `Literature papers'.

2 As for the Preliminary Examination for Modern Languages (see 5 above).

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7 Boards of the Faculties of Medieval and Modern Languages and Oriental Studies

Preliminary Examination in European and Middle Eastern Languages

With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first examination in 1998)

1 In Examination Decrees, 1996, p. 79, after l. 18, insert:

`(1) The European Language

Candidates will be required to offer:'.

2 Ibid., l. 19, delete `(1)' and substitute `(i)'.

3 Ibid., after l.22, insert:

`(ii) Literature paper in the European Language (one paper of three hours).

As specified either for Paper III or for Paper IV in the regulations for the Preliminary Examination in Modern Languages (Paper III may not be offered in German).'

4 Ibid., p.80, l.2, delete `Language papers in the European Language' and substitute `The European Language'.

5 Ibid., ll. 6–7, delete `A candidate...subsequent examination' and substitute `A candidate who has failed (i) or (ii) of subject (1) may resit the paper or papers at a subsequent examination in accordance with the regulations for the Preliminary Examination for Modern Languages.'

6 As for the Preliminary Examination for Modern Languages (see 5 above).

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8 Board of the Faculty of Modern History

Honour School of Modern History

With effect from 1 October 1998 (for first examination in 1999)

In Examination Decrees, 1996, p. 315, delete ll. 1–7 and substitute:

`V. Comparative History and Historiography: an extended essay. Candidates shall be examined in Comparative History and Historiography by means of an extended essay, which shall not exceed 7,500 words (including footnotes and references but excluding bibliography) and shall be on a topic or theme chosen from a list circulated by the examiners by the end of the Fifth Week of the Trinity Term of the year prior to the examination. The examiners' list shall be drawn from a syllabus approved by the Modern History Faculty Board, details of which shall be circulated to candidates at the beginning of the first Michaelmas Term of their work for the Honour School. Candidates will be expected to demonstrate a detailed knowledge of either at least two societies or historical periods or a representative number of relevant historians.

Candidates will have the opportunity of two meetings with their tutors in the preparatory stages of work on the chosen essay; but colleges will not offer seminar or tutorial teaching on the themes of comparative history and historiography after the posting of the titles by the examiners, and tutors will not see or comment on the essays, either at draft or final stage. Essays should be typed and should conform to normal standards of academic presentation as set out on the Faculty style sheet. All references must be appropriately footnoted.

Essays must be delivered by hand to the Examination Schools by 5 p.m. on the Friday of the Eighth Week of the Hilary Term immediately preceding the examination; candidates delivering essays will be required to complete a receipt form, which will only be accepted as proof of receipt if it is countersigned by a member of the Examination Schools staff. Each essay must be accompanied by a sealed envelope (bearing only the candidate's examination number) containing a formal declaration signed by the candidate that the essay is his or her own work. The University's regulations on Late Entries, as set out in the Examination Decrees under the section Examination Times and Entry of Names, will apply; candidates are warned that late entries require the prior permission of the Vice-Chancellor and Proctors and will, if permission is granted, result in a late entry fee (plus, in particular cases, the possible reduction of the mark by up to one class).'

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9 Boards of the Faculties of Modern History and Literae Humaniores

Honour School of Ancient and Modern History

With effect from 1 October 1998 (for first examination in 1999)

In Examination Decrees, 1996, p. 125, delete ll. 23–9 and substitute:

`6. Comparative History and Historiography (extended essay). Each candidate shall be examined in Comparative History and Historiography in accordance with regulation V of the Honour School of Modern History.'

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10 Board of the Faculty of Physical Sciences

(a) Honour School of Natural Science (Geology/Earth Sciences)

With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first Part A examinations

in 2000 and first Part B examination in the case of the three-year course in 2000 and in the case of the four-year course 2001) In Examination Decrees, 1996, delete from p. 419, l. 49 to p. 420, l. 33 inclusive and substitute:

`GEOLOGY (THREE-YEAR COURSE)

1. The examination shall be in two parts.

2.In Part A: A candidate shall be required to offer:

(i) five written papers on the fundamental principles of Geology; and

(ii) either two practical papers on observational and interpretational techniques, or one practical paper on observational and interpretational techniques and one paper in mathematics; and

(iii) a report on an individual practical project.

The Head of Department of Earth Sciences, or deputy, shall provide the examiners with information showing the extent to which each candidate has satisfactorily completed the practicals and field courses. In addition, practical notebooks containing records of both field and laboratory courses must also be made available to the examiners. Such evidence will be taken into consideration by the examiners in awarding classes. Candidates may be examined viva voce at the examiners' discretion.

3. In Part B a candidate shall be required to offer:

(i) a written paper on one subject chosen from a list published by the Sub-faculty of Earth Sciences; and

(ii) either an extended essay on a subject approved by the Chairman of the Sub-faculty of Earth Sciences, or deputy, or a report on practical work completed subsequent to Part A of the examination, the subject of the practical work to be approved by the Chairman of the Sub-faculty of Earth Sciences, or deputy.

The list of subjects and syllabuses for the written paper in 3(i) will be published in the Gazette by the Sub-faculty of Earth Sciences not later than the end of Trinity Full Term for examination six terms thence.

EARTH SCIENCES (FOUR-YEAR COURSE)

1. The examination shall be in two parts.

2.Part A of the examination shall be the same as the Part A of the examination for the three-year course in Geology and the same conditions, arrangements, and examination timings shall apply.

3. Part B of the examination shall be taken at a time not less than four terms after Part A. In Part B a candidate shall be required to offer:

(i) three written papers; and

(ii) either an extended essay, or a report on an advanced practical project or other advanced work.

4. The detailed requirements and arrangements for clause 3 and the list of subjects and the syllabuses from which the written papers may be selected shall be approved by the Sub-faculty of Earth Sciences with the agreement of the Head of the Department of Earth Sciences or deputy and published in the Gazette not later than the end of Michaelmas Full Term of the academic year preceding the year of Part B of the examination. The proposed nature of the practical or other advanced work and its duration shall be submitted for approval to the Chairman of the Sub-faculty of Earth Sciences or deputy with the agreement of the Head of the Department of Earth Sciences or deputy.

Times of examinations

The Part A examination for both three- and four-year courses will be taken during weeks 8 and 9 of Hilary Term of the third year. The written paper for Part B of the three-year course will be taken in week 8 of Trinity Term of the third year, by the Friday of which the extended essay or report on practical work must also have been submitted.

The written papers for Part B of the four-year course will be taken in week 8 of Trinity Term of the fourth year. The extended essay or report on practical work must have been submitted by the Friday of week 6 of Trinity Term of the fourth year.'

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(b) Pass School of Natural Science (Geology/Earth Sciences)

With effect from 1 October 1997 (for first examination in 2000

in the case of the three-year course and 2001 in the case of the four-year course) In Examination Decrees, 1996, delete from p. 432, l. 32 to p. 433, l. 2 inclusive and substitute:

`Pass School of Natural Science (Geology)

Three-year course

1. Candidates shall be required to satisfy the examiners in five papers on the fundamentals of Geology as specified in Part A of the three-year course for the Honour School of Natural Science (Geology) and also in practical examinations at the discretion of the examiners.

2.Candidates are required to attend such field courses during each year of study as are approved annually by the Sub-faculty of Earth Sciences.

3. Practical notebooks containing records of both field and laboratory courses must also be made available to the examiners.

Four-year course

Candidates shall be required to satisfy the examiners:

(a) as prescribed in sections (1), (2) and one of (3), (4), and (5) of Part A of the four-year course for the Honour School of Natural Science (Earth Sciences);

(b) in one of the written papers on major options as prescribed in section (3)(i) of Part B of the four-year course for the Honour School of Natural Science (Earth Sciences);

(c) in an extended essay or report on practical option work or project as prescribed in section (3)(ii) of Part B of the four-year course for the Honour School of Natural Science (Earth Sciences).'

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EXAMINATIONS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

The examiners appointed by the following faculty boards give notice of oral examination of their candidates as follows:

Anthropology and Geography

MENGYU HU, Hertford: `Plio–Pleistocene environmental variations inferred from thick sediment sequences in the North China Plain'.
School of Geography, Wednesday, 21 May, 2 p.m.
Examiners: A.S. Goudie, E. Derbyshire.

Biological Sciences

A.E. RAMBAUT, Merton: `The inference of evolutionary process from molecular phylogenies'.
Department of Zoology, Monday, 19 May, 2 p.m.
Examiners: R. Page, M. Pagel.

Clinical Medicine

J. O'LEARY, Green College: `Molecular analysis of Kaposis Sarcoma associated herpes virus (KS HV) in immunocompromised patients'.
John Radcliffe Hospital, Wednesday, 9 July, 1 p.m.
Examiners: J.C.E. Underwood, K.A. Fleming.

Modern History

V. BUCKLEY, Wolfson: `Birth control and the English Catholic family, 1950–95'.
Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, Tuesday, 27 May, 9.30 a.m.
Examiners: J.E. Lewis, S. Szreter.

S. PENNELL, St Catherine's: `The material culture of food in early modern England, c.1650–1750'.
Jesus College, Cambridge (with the permission of the Proctors), Tuesday, 27 May, 4 p.m.
Examiners: J.M. Innes, K. Wrightson.

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Physical Sciences

M. BESHARA, Pembroke: `Energy flows in structures with compliant non-conservative couplings'.
Department of Engineering Science, Tuesday, 3 June, 2.15 p.m.
Examiners: R.S. Langley, R. Eatock Taylor.

M. WALTER, Merton: `Synthesis of metallo-B-lactamase inhibitors'.
Dyson Perrins Laboratory, Friday, 30 May, 9 a.m.
Examiners: H. Waldmann, D.M. Hodgson.

K.M.W. ZEPF, St John's: `A study of harmonic generation from laser interactions with gaseous and solid targets'.
Clarendon Laboratory, Thursday, 12 June, 2 p.m.
Examiners: S.M. Hooker, M.H.R. Hutchinson.

Social Studies

A.V. LUKIN, St Antony's: `"Democratic" groups in Soviet Russia (1985–91): a study in political cultures'.
St Antony's, Wednesday, 28 May, 11 a.m.
Examiners: G. Hosking, A. Pravda.

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