Examinations and Boards

Contents of this section:

[Note. An asterisk denotes a reference to a previously published or recurrent entry.]

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APPOINTMENT OF EXAMINER

The following has been appointed

SECOND PUBLIC EXAMINATION

Honour Schools

Modern History and Economics

A.S. COURAKIS, MA, Brasenose (vice Gregory)

Philosophy, Politics, and Economics

A.S. COURAKIS, MA, Brasenose (vice Gregory)

From the first day of Michaelmas Term 1995 to the first day of Michaelmas Term 1996

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BOARD OF THE FACULTY OF PHYSICAL SCIENCES

Sub-faculty of Physics

In accordance with the regulations for the Honour School of Natural Science (Physics) the following syllabuses are published by the Sub-Faculty of Physics.

HONOUR SCHOOL OF NATURAL SCIENCE (PHYSICS)

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Syllabuses for Part A of the Second Public Examination of the three- and four- year courses (Hilary Term 1998)

Five written papers on the fundamental principles of Physics.

General

Candidates will be expected to possess a general understanding of the macroscopic behaviour and phenomenological description of the properties of matter in bulk and to have such knowledge of chemistry and mathematics as is required to study the subjects of the examination.

Apart from the mathematical questions on sects. (5a) and (5b) emphasis in the papers on the Fundamental Principles of Physics will be placed on testing the candidates' conceptual and experimental understanding of the subjects.

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A1. Thermal Physics

Kinetic theory of gases. Mean free path and application to viscosity and thermal conductivity. (Low pressure phenomena are excluded.)

Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac and Bose Einstein distributions with simple applications. Black body radiation. Partition function and its relation to thermodynamic functions; application to the rotational and vibrational contributions to the heat capacity of diatomic gases.

Thermal waves in solids and thermal conductivity as a boundary value problem in one space dimension.

First and second laws of thermodynamics. Equations of state, thermodynamic properties of pure substances. Thermodynamic functions, their significance and use. First-order phase changes.

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A2. Electromagnetism and optics

Electric and magnetic fields and their relation to charges and currents. The motion of particles in electric and magnetic fields. Fields in isotropic dielectric and magnetic media. Electric and magnetic energy density. Maxwell's equations. Plane electromagnetic waves in extended media. Poynting vector and radiation pressure. Reflection and transmission at plane interfaces between dielectrics for normal and oblique incidence. Skin depth. Loss-less transmission lines. Simple classic harmonic oscillator theory of dispersion, absorption and scattering.

Fraunhofer diffraction and interference by wavefront division. Telescopes, microscopes, grating spectrometers, resolution limits, Abbé theory (qualitative). Two beam interference and applications of the Michelson interferometer. Multiple beam interference and the Fabry-Perot etalon. Polarization and the optics of uniaxial crystals.

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A3. Quantum mechanics and atomic physics

Schrödinger equation for one particle; plane waves; reflection and transmission of plane waves at potential barriers in one dimension. Solution for the harmonic oscillator in one dimension. Solution for the cubical box. Central potentials; orbital angular momentum and parity; form of solutions for the bound states in a Coulomb potential. Postulates of quantum mechanics; operators; eigenvalues; expectation values and measurements. First order time-independent non-degenerate perturbation theory. The concept of good quantum numbers. The formula for transition probabilities.

Particle and wave properties of photons and matter. Simple treatment of atomic spectra, fine structure, Zeeman effect. Selection rules for electric dipole radiation. Periodic table. X-ray spectra in emission and absorption. Einstein A and B coefficients. Simple treatment of the hyperfine structure of atoms in the absence of external fields.

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A4. Condensed matter and electronics

Simple ideas of crystalline structure; X-ray determination of lattice constant for cubic structures. Interatomic forces, lattic vibrations, Einstein and Debye heat capacities of solids. Elementary treatment of thermal and electrical resistivity. Free electron theory of metals, simple ideas of electron energy band structure in one dimension. Elementary properties of intrinsic and impurity semiconductors, concepts of holes and effective mass. Application to elementary treatment of semiconductor junctions.

Magnetic properties of solids including paramagnetism and mean field theory of ferromagnetism. Simple ideas of superconductivity. Elementary treatment of magnetic resonance phenomena.

The dc and small signal analysis of circuits containing junction diodes and one of two bipolar transistors. (High frequency effects in semiconductor devices are excluded). Ideal operational amplifiers and their use with negative feedback in linear amplifiers, integrators, differentiators and summing circuits. Use of ideal operational amplifiers with positive feedback in oscillator and Schmitt trigger circuits.

Truth tables and Boolean algebra. Design of simple combinational logic circuits using ideal gates. The properties of ideal S-R, D-type and J-K flip-flops. Analysis of simple sequential circuits including counter and shift register circuits.

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A5. Special relativity, sub-atomic physics, mathematics

Experimental basis for the special theory of relativity. The Lorentz transformation and its use in elementary problems in mechanics and optics. Proper time and the relativistic expressions for energy and momentum; the transformation of energy and momentum. Energy and momentum for systems of particles in the centre of mass and other frames; invariant mass. The application of conservation laws and invariants to simple problems in mechanics and optics.

The semi-empirical mass formula and nuclear stability. Radioactivity; simple applications. The single-particle shell model; spin and parity. Cross sections and qualitative treatment of resonances. The basic elements of energy generation in fission reactors and stars. The interaction of radiation with matter and the basic methods used in the detection of particles and radiation. Elementary properties of hadrons and leptons; the production and decay of particles. The quark model; spin, parity and charge of hadrons; the quark flavours; charmonium. The fundamental interactions; concept of virtual particle exchange; selection rules and coupling constants. Simple theory of Fermi beta decay and simple applications to particle and nuclear beta decay; effects of kinematics on decay rates. Parity violation in weak interactions. The W and Z bosons.

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Mathematics

(a) Matrices and linear transformations, including translations and rotations in three dimensions and Lorentz transformations in four dimensions. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of real symmetric matrices and of Hermitian matrices. Diagonalization of real symmetric matrices with distinct eigenvalues.

(b) Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of second-order linear ordinary differential equations of the Sturm-Liouville type; simple examples of orthogonality of eigenfunctions belonging to different eigenvalues; simple eigenfunction expansions. The method of separation of variables in linear partial differential equations in three and four variables. Use of Cartesian, spherical polar and cylindrical polar coordinates (proofs of the form of şı will not be required). Elementary treatment of series solutions of linear, homogeneous second order differential equations, including solutions which terminate as a finite polynomial. (Formal questions of convergence are excluded, as is the method of Frobenius for obtaining a second solution containing a logarithmic function in the case in which the roots of the indicial equation differ by an integer.)

(c) Simple physical applications of the following topics. (The physics will be restricted to topics occurring elsewhere in the syllabus.) Wave packets, phase and group velocity; the bandwidth theorems and uncertainty relations; the formulae for the Fourier transform and its inverse and for Fourier sine and cosine transforms and their inverses. Convolution. (All transforms are restricted to one dimension only. The use of transforms in solving ordinary and partial differential equations and the use of contour integration are excluded. One question may be set on each of the mathematical topics of sects. (5a) and (5b) and incidental use may be required on any paper of the material of sect. (5c).

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Theoretical Physics

Section A: Classical Mechanics

The calculus of variations and Hamilton's principle. Lagrange's and Hamilton's equations with simple applications to systems with a few degrees of freedom. Normal modes from Lagrangians. Symmetries and conservation laws; generators and Poisson brackets. The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian for a point particle in an external electromagnetic field.

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Section B: Quantum mechanics

State vectors, bra and ket notation. Quantum mechanics of finite state systems. First and second order time-independent perturbation theory including the degenerate case. First-order time-dependent perturbation theory. Hamiltonian for a non relativistic particle in an external electromagnetic field. Operator methods for the simple harmonic oscillator and for angular momentum. Matrix representation of angular momentum, including in particular the Pauli spin matrix formalism for spin- ½ particles. Wave functions for two identical particles of spin-0, and of spin-½.

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Section C: Statistical mechanics

The microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical ensembles. Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics. Bose-Einstein condensation. Fluctuations. The one-dimensional Ising model.

Four questions will be set on each of the sections, A, B and C. Candidates replacing one term of practical work will be required to answer two questions in one and a half hours. Candidates replacing two terms of practical work will be required to answer four questions from at least two sections in three hours.

At the time of entering the examination candidates intending to offer a paper on theoretical physics must give notice of their intention and must state whether that paper will replace one term or two terms of practical work.

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HONOUR SCHOOL OF NATURAL SCIENCE (PHYSICS)

Syllabuses for Part B of the Second Public Examination of the three-year course (Trinity Term 1998)

Syllabuses for options

One written paper of one and a half hours.

Candidates will be required to answer two questions from any one section, each section being set on the following separate topics. Such background knowledge as is required for the study of the topic will be assumed.

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Topic A (Condensed Matter Physics: Opto electronic and Device Physics)

Basic physics of transport and optical properties of semiconductors relevant to the operation of semiconductor devices. Principles of operation of bipolar and field effect devices. Semiconductor light emitters and detectors with applications in communication and information processing technology. Physics of low-dimensional structures with applications to electronic and optoelectronic devices.

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Topic B (Atomic and Laser Physics: Lasers and applications)

Emission of optical radiation. Interaction of radiation and matter. Laser principles; inversion mechanics in gas and solid state laser systems. Optical cavities and eigenmodes. Time and frequency control of lasers.

Lasers in fundamental research.

Optical fibres and laser communication systemsm

Medical, engineering and industrial applications of lasers.

Application of lasers to environmental monitoring.

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Topic C (Applied Nuclear Physics)

Variations of isotopic abundances, their causes and measurement. Applications to dating and provenancing. Trace element analysis by proton induced X-ray emission and Rutherford back scattering. Interaction of radiation and matter. Application to radiation and particle detectors. Health Physics. The radiation environment. Cosmic rays. Nuclear fission. The Physics of fission reactors. Nuclear fusion. The Physics of fusion reactors including the Sun. Nucleosynthesis in the stars and the early Universe.

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Topic D (Electronic circuits)

Analogue electronics: Low and high frequency characteristics of bipola and field effect transistors. Linear amplifier design, negative feedback, compensation and stability. Non-linear and positive feedback circuits, mixers, oscillators. Noise and recovery of signals from noise.

Digital Electronics: Combinational logic and sequential logic. Programmable logic. Registers, data transfer, the microprocessor. Codes, error detection and correction. Sampling. Analogue to digital interface.

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Topic E (Physics of fluid flows)

Fluids as continua; Navier-Stokes equations; conservation of mass. Poiseuille flow, Couette flow. Very viscous flows. Vorticity; inviscid, irrotational flows. Water waves. Nonlinear effects. Instability, turbulence.

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Topic F (Astrophysics)

Introduction to cosmology. Observational constraints, expanding Universe, background radiation, primordial abundancies, mass density of the Universe, the Hot Big Bang model. The very early Universe, inflation, topological defects, evolution of irregularities, large scale structure of the Universe.

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Topic G (Chaos)

Linear vs non-linear systems, phase plane, notions of stability. Parametric and forced oscillators, bifurcation to chaos. Iterative maps, universality. Static and dynamic bifurcations. Simple and strange attractors. Poincare maps. Lyapunov exponents, fractals. Applications, fluid dynamics, semiconductors.

There may also be two computer experiments for Topic H and questions may be set on these.

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JOINT COMMITTEE FOR PHYSICS AND PHILOSOPHY

In accordance with the regulations for the Honour School of Physics and Philosophy the following syllabuses are published by the Joint Committee for Physics and Philosophy.

HONOUR SCHOOL OF PHYSICS AND PHILOSOPHY

Syllabuses for Part A of the Second Public Examination (Hilary Term 1998)

One three-hour written paper in theoretical physics and two written papers on the fundamental principles of physics.

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General

Candidates will be expected to possess a general understanding of the macroscopic behaviour and phenomenological description of the properties of matter in bulk and to have such knowledge of chemistry and mathematics as is required to study the subjects of the examination.

Apart from the mathematical questions on sects. (iii.a) and (iii.b) emphasis in the papers on the Fundamental Principles of Physics will be placed on testing the candidates' conceptual and experimental understanding of the subjects.

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(i) Theoretical Physics

Section A: Classical Mechanics

The calculus of variations and Hamilton's principle. Lagrange's and Hamilton's equations with simple applications to systems with a few degrees of freedom. Normal modes from Lagrangians. Symmetries and conservation laws; generators and Poisson brackets. The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian for a point particle in an external electromagnetic field.

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Section B: Quantum mechanics

State vectors, bra and ket notation. Quantum mechanics of finite state systems. First and second order time-independent perturbation theory including the degenerate case. First-order time-dependent perturbation theory. Hamiltonian for a non relativistic particle in an external electromagnetic field. Operator methods for the simple harmonic oscillator and for angular momentum. Matrix representation of angular momentum, including in particular the Pauli spin matrix formalism for spin- ½ particles. Wave functions for two identical particles of spin-0, and of spin-½.

Four questions will be set on each of the sections, A and B.

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(ii) Fundamental Principles I: Quantum mechanics and atomic physics

Schrödinger equation for one particle; plane waves; reflection and transmission of plane waves at potential barriers in one dimension. Solution for the harmonic oscillator in one dimension. Solution for the cubical box. Central potentials; orbital angular momentum and parity; form of solutions for the bound states in a Coulomb potential. Postulates of quantum mechanics; operators; eigenvalues; expectation values and measurements. First order time-independent non-degenerate perturbation theory. The concept of good quantum numbers. The formula for transition probabilities.

Particle and wave properties of photons and matter. Simple treatment of atomic spectra, fine structure, Zeeman effect. Selection rules for electric dipole radiation. Periodic table. X-ray spectra in emission and absorption. Einstein A and B coefficients. Simple treatment of the hyperfine structure of atoms in the absence of external fields.

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(iii) Fundamental Principles II: Special relativity, sub- atomic physics, mathematics

Experimental basis for the special theory of relativity. The Lorentz transformation and its use in elementary problems in mechanics and optics. Proper time and the relativistic expressions for energy and momentum; the transformation of energy and momentum. Energy and momentum for systems of particles in the centre of mass and other frames; invariant mass. The application of conservation laws and invariants to simple problems in mechanics and optics.

The semi-empirical mass formula and nuclear stability. Radioactivity; simple applications. The single-particle shell model; spin and parity. Cross sections and qualitative treatment of resonances. The basic elements of energy generation in fission reactors and stars. The interaction of radiation with matter and the basic methods used in the detection of particles and radiation. Elementary properties of hadrons and leptons; the production and decay of particles. The quark model; spin, parity and charge of hadrons; the quark flavours; charmonium. The fundamental interactions; concept of virtual particle exchange; selection rules and coupling constants. Simple theory of Fermi beta decay and simple applications to particle and nuclear beta decay; effects of kinematics on decay rates. Parity violation in weak interactions. The W and Z bosons.

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Mathematics

(a) Matrices and linear transformations, including translations and rotations in three dimensions and Lorentz transformations in four dimensions. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of real symmetric matrices and of Hermitian matrices. Diagonalization of real symmetric matrices with distinct eigenvalues.

(b) Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of second-order linear ordinary differential equations of the Sturm-Liouville type; simple examples of orthogonality of eigenfunctions belonging to different eigenvalues; simple eigenfunction expansions. The method of separation of variables in linear partial differential equations in three and four variables. Use of Cartesian, spherical polar and cylindrical polar coordinates (proofs of the form of şı will not be required). Elementary treatment of series solutions of linear, homogeneous second order differential equations, including solutions which terminate as a finite polynomial. (Formal questions of convergence are excluded, as is the method of Frobenius for obtaining a second solution containing a logarithmic function in the case in which the roots of the indicial equation differ by an integer.)

(c) Simple physical applications of the following topics. (The physics will be restricted to topics occurring elsewhere in the syllabus.) Wave packets, phase and group velocity; the bandwidth theorems and uncertainty relations; the formulae for the Fourier transform and its inverse and for Fourier sine and cosine transforms and their inverses. Convolution. (All transforms are restricted to one dimension only. The use of transforms in solving ordinary and partial differential equations and the use of contour integration are excluded.) One question may be set on each of the mathematical topics of sects. (iii.a) and (iii.b) and incidental use may be required on any paper of the material of sect. (iii.c).

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EXAMINATIONS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

The examiners appointed by the following faculty boards give notice of oral examination of their candidates as follows:

Clinical Medicine

A.F. SARPHIE, Magdalen: `Changes in blood coagulation associated with hyperlipidaemia'.
Green College, Thursday, 27 June, 2 p.m.
Examiners: I.J. Mackie, G.F. Gibbons.

Literae Humaniores

Corrected notice

R.E. ASH, St Hugh's: `Individual and collective identities in Tacitus's Histories'.
Examination Schools, Wednesday, 26 June, 3 p.m.
Examiners: M.T. Griffin, C.S. Kraus.

Medieval and Modern Languages

B.F. SALGADO, Queen's: `The rudiments of Galician: an examination of early twentieth-century Galician linguistic texts (1913–36)'.
Queen's, Monday, 17 June, 4 p.m.
Examiners: J.N. Green, J.D. Rutherford.

Modern History

E. KANE, St Antony's: Tilting to Europe?: British responses to developments in European integration 1955–8'.
Brasenose, Friday, 28 June, 2.15 p.m.
Examiners: G. Warner, J.W. Young.

D. KERR, Pembroke: `Charles Philipon, caricature and political culture in France under the July Monarchy'.
Merton, Wednesday, 26 June, 11 a.m.
Examiners: R.N. Gildea, P.M. Pilbeam.

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Physical Sciences

P.L. DOLAN, St Peter's: `Synthetic applications of arene cheomium tricarbonyl complexes'.
Dyson Perrins Laboratory, Tuesday, 9 July, 11 a.m.
Examiners: T.J. Donahoe, G.W.J. Fleet.

R. THOMPSON, Jesus: `Development of non-linear numerical models appropriate for the analysis of jack-up units'.
Department of Engineering Science, Thursday, 27 June, 2.15 p.m.
Examiners: A. Chandler, R. Eatock Taylor.

Social Studies

BYUNG-YEON KIM, Hertford: `Fiscal policy and consumer market disequilibrium in the Soviet Union, 1965–89'.
Mansfield, Monday, 17 June, 2 p.m.
Examiners: A. Chawluk, M. Harrison.

N. RAMANUJAM, St Peter's: `Price mechanism in Russia: its role in the old planning and the new markets'.
Mansfield, Thursday, 20 June, 2 p.m.
Examiners: A. Chawluk, P. Hanson.

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