- *BOARD OF THE FACULTY OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
- *BOARD OF THE FACULTY OF MODERN HISTORY
- *BOARD OF THE FACULTY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
- *BOARD OF THE FACULTY OF SOCIAL STUDIES
- APPOINTMENT OF EXAMINER
- BOARD OF THE FACULTY OF PHYSICAL
SCIENCES
- Sub-faculty of Physics: Honour School of Natural Science (Physics)

- JOINT COMMITTEE FOR PHYSICS AND PHILOSOPHY
- *CHAIRMAN OF EXAMINERS
- EXAMINATION SCHOOLS: Accommodation in Michaelmas Term
- EXAMINATIONS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

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From the first day of Michaelmas Term 1995 to the first day of Michaelmas Term 1996

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Apart from the mathematical questions on sects. (5a) and (5b) emphasis in the papers on the Fundamental Principles of Physics will be placed on testing the candidates' conceptual and experimental understanding of the subjects.

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Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac and Bose Einstein distributions with simple applications. Black body radiation. Partition function and its relation to thermodynamic functions; application to the rotational and vibrational contributions to the heat capacity of diatomic gases.

Thermal waves in solids and thermal conductivity as a boundary value problem in one space dimension.

First and second laws of thermodynamics. Equations of state, thermodynamic properties of pure substances. Thermodynamic functions, their significance and use. First-order phase changes.

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Fraunhofer diffraction and interference by wavefront division. Telescopes, microscopes, grating spectrometers, resolution limits, Abbé theory (qualitative). Two beam interference and applications of the Michelson interferometer. Multiple beam interference and the Fabry-Perot etalon. Polarization and the optics of uniaxial crystals.

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Particle and wave properties of photons and matter. Simple treatment of atomic spectra, fine structure, Zeeman effect. Selection rules for electric dipole radiation. Periodic table. X-ray spectra in emission and absorption. Einstein A and B coefficients. Simple treatment of the hyperfine structure of atoms in the absence of external fields.

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Magnetic properties of solids including paramagnetism and mean field theory of ferromagnetism. Simple ideas of superconductivity. Elementary treatment of magnetic resonance phenomena.

The dc and small signal analysis of circuits containing junction diodes and one of two bipolar transistors. (High frequency effects in semiconductor devices are excluded). Ideal operational amplifiers and their use with negative feedback in linear amplifiers, integrators, differentiators and summing circuits. Use of ideal operational amplifiers with positive feedback in oscillator and Schmitt trigger circuits.

Truth tables and Boolean algebra. Design of simple combinational logic circuits using ideal gates. The properties of ideal S-R, D-type and J-K flip-flops. Analysis of simple sequential circuits including counter and shift register circuits.

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The semi-empirical mass formula and nuclear stability. Radioactivity; simple applications. The single-particle shell model; spin and parity. Cross sections and qualitative treatment of resonances. The basic elements of energy generation in fission reactors and stars. The interaction of radiation with matter and the basic methods used in the detection of particles and radiation. Elementary properties of hadrons and leptons; the production and decay of particles. The quark model; spin, parity and charge of hadrons; the quark flavours; charmonium. The fundamental interactions; concept of virtual particle exchange; selection rules and coupling constants. Simple theory of Fermi beta decay and simple applications to particle and nuclear beta decay; effects of kinematics on decay rates. Parity violation in weak interactions. The W and Z bosons.

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(*a*) Matrices and linear transformations, including
translations and rotations in three dimensions and Lorentz
transformations in four dimensions. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors
of real symmetric matrices and of Hermitian matrices.
Diagonalization of real symmetric matrices with distinct
eigenvalues.

(*b*) Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of second-order
linear ordinary differential equations of the Sturm-Liouville
type; simple examples of orthogonality of eigenfunctions
belonging to different eigenvalues; simple eigenfunction
expansions. The method of separation of variables in linear
partial differential equations in three and four variables. Use
of Cartesian, spherical polar and cylindrical polar coordinates
(proofs of the form of şı will not be required). Elementary
treatment of series solutions of linear, homogeneous second order
differential equations, including solutions which terminate as
a finite polynomial. (Formal questions of convergence are
excluded, as is the method of Frobenius for obtaining a second
solution containing a logarithmic function in the case in which
the roots of the indicial equation differ by an integer.)

(*c*) Simple physical applications of the following
topics. (The physics will be restricted to topics occurring
elsewhere in the syllabus.) Wave packets, phase and group
velocity; the bandwidth theorems and uncertainty relations; the
formulae for the Fourier transform and its inverse and for
Fourier sine and cosine transforms and their inverses.
Convolution. (All transforms are restricted to one dimension
only. The use of transforms in solving ordinary and partial
differential equations and the use of contour integration are
excluded.
One question may be set on each of the mathematical topics
of sects. (5a) and (5b) and incidental use may be required on any
paper of the material of sect. (5c).

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Four questions will be set on each of the sections, A, B and C. Candidates replacing one term of practical work will be required to answer two questions in one and a half hours. Candidates replacing two terms of practical work will be required to answer four questions from at least two sections in three hours.

At the time of entering the examination candidates intending to offer a paper on theoretical physics must give notice of their intention and must state whether that paper will replace one term or two terms of practical work.

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Candidates will be required to answer two questions from any one section, each section being set on the following separate topics. Such background knowledge as is required for the study of the topic will be assumed.

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Lasers in fundamental research.

Optical fibres and laser communication systemsm

Medical, engineering and industrial applications of lasers.

Application of lasers to environmental monitoring.

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Digital Electronics: Combinational logic and sequential logic. Programmable logic. Registers, data transfer, the microprocessor. Codes, error detection and correction. Sampling. Analogue to digital interface.

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There may also be two computer experiments for Topic H and questions may be set on these.

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Apart from the mathematical questions on sects. (iii.a) and (iii.b) emphasis in the papers on the Fundamental Principles of Physics will be placed on testing the candidates' conceptual and experimental understanding of the subjects.

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Four questions will be set on each of the sections, A and B.

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Particle and wave properties of photons and matter. Simple treatment of atomic spectra, fine structure, Zeeman effect. Selection rules for electric dipole radiation. Periodic table. X-ray spectra in emission and absorption. Einstein A and B coefficients. Simple treatment of the hyperfine structure of atoms in the absence of external fields.

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The semi-empirical mass formula and nuclear stability. Radioactivity; simple applications. The single-particle shell model; spin and parity. Cross sections and qualitative treatment of resonances. The basic elements of energy generation in fission reactors and stars. The interaction of radiation with matter and the basic methods used in the detection of particles and radiation. Elementary properties of hadrons and leptons; the production and decay of particles. The quark model; spin, parity and charge of hadrons; the quark flavours; charmonium. The fundamental interactions; concept of virtual particle exchange; selection rules and coupling constants. Simple theory of Fermi beta decay and simple applications to particle and nuclear beta decay; effects of kinematics on decay rates. Parity violation in weak interactions. The W and Z bosons.

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(*a*) Matrices and linear transformations, including
translations and rotations in three dimensions and Lorentz
transformations in four dimensions. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors
of real symmetric matrices and of Hermitian matrices.
Diagonalization of real symmetric matrices with distinct
eigenvalues.

(*b*) Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of second-order
linear ordinary differential equations of the Sturm-Liouville
type; simple examples of orthogonality of eigenfunctions
belonging to different eigenvalues; simple eigenfunction
expansions. The method of separation of variables in linear
partial differential equations in three and four variables. Use
of Cartesian, spherical polar and cylindrical polar coordinates
(proofs of the form of şı will not be required). Elementary
treatment of series solutions of linear, homogeneous second order
differential equations, including solutions which terminate as
a finite polynomial. (Formal questions of convergence are
excluded, as is the method of Frobenius for obtaining a second
solution containing a logarithmic function in the case in which
the roots of the indicial equation differ by an integer.)

(*c*) Simple physical applications of the following
topics. (The physics will be restricted to topics occurring
elsewhere in the syllabus.) Wave packets, phase and group
velocity; the bandwidth theorems and uncertainty relations; the
formulae for the Fourier transform and its inverse and for
Fourier sine and cosine transforms and their inverses.
Convolution. (All transforms are restricted to one dimension
only. The use of transforms in solving ordinary and partial
differential equations and the use of contour integration are
excluded.)
One question may be set on each of the mathematical topics of
sects. (iii.a) and (iii.b) and incidental use may be required on
any paper of the material of sect. (iii.c).

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Green College, Thursday, 27 June, 2 p.m.

Examination Schools, Wednesday, 26 June, 3 p.m.

Queen's, Monday, 17 June, 4 p.m.

Brasenose, Friday, 28 June, 2.15 p.m.

D. KERR, Pembroke: `Charles Philipon, caricature and political
culture in France under the July Monarchy'.

Merton, Wednesday, 26 June, 11 a.m.

*Examiners*: R.N. Gildea, P.M. Pilbeam.

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Dyson Perrins Laboratory, Tuesday, 9 July, 11 a.m.

R. THOMPSON, Jesus: `Development of non-linear numerical models
appropriate for the analysis of jack-up units'.

Department of Engineering Science, Thursday, 27 June, 2.15 p.m.

*Examiners*: A. Chandler, R. Eatock Taylor.

Mansfield, Monday, 17 June, 2 p.m.

N. RAMANUJAM, St Peter's: `Price mechanism in Russia: its role in
the old planning and the new markets'.

Mansfield, Thursday, 20 June, 2 p.m.

*Examiners*: A. Chawluk, P. Hanson.

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