Arguably, the First World War saw the greatest advent of new science and technology than any conflict hitherto, and science played a greater role in warfare than ever. On land, the innovations of barbed wire, machine guns and tanks changed the nature of battle. At sea, radio communications changed the operation of surface fleets, and the introduction of submarine warfare altered the nature of war at sea. This war saw also the advent of aerial warfare which was to change the nature of all future wars. This conference seeks to review the key ways in which physics and its mathematics changed the nature of conflict from various points of views: technical, historical and sociological.